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Case Name Crum v. State of Alabama EE-AL-0100
Docket / Court 2:94-cv-00356 ( M.D. Ala. )
State/Territory Alabama
Case Type(s) Equal Employment
Case Summary
On November 21, 1991, employees of the State of Alabama filed this lawsuit against numerous state agencies and departments, claiming racial discrimination in hiring, discipline, layoffs and other terms and conditions of employment. This was the first of many similar complaints to be filed in ... read more >
On November 21, 1991, employees of the State of Alabama filed this lawsuit against numerous state agencies and departments, claiming racial discrimination in hiring, discipline, layoffs and other terms and conditions of employment. This was the first of many similar complaints to be filed in subsequent years against various Alabama State boards and departments, including the Department of Public Health and the Alabama Labor Board. Multiple amended versions were filed for each complaint. Beginning on March 8, 1994, various motions to dismiss were filed by the defendants to dismiss the claims listed in the complaints on the grounds of, among other things, sovereign immunity.

On March 24, 1994, U.S. District Court Judge Myron H. Thompson ordered consolidation of all these cases in case no. 94-T-356-N. The plaintiffs then filed an all-encompassing amended complaint on May 2, 1994 under 42 U.S.C. § 1981 and § 1983 against the state in the United States District Court for the Middle District of Alabama. Later, claims under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, 42 U.S.C. § 2000e et seq. were added to the case.

On September 15, 1994, the plaintiffs filed motions to certify both a defendant class of all agencies and departments of Alabama, and a plaintiff class consisting of all African-Americans who applied for employment opportunities with the State of Alabama, or would have applied for such opportunities in the absence of the racial discrimination alleged in defendants' selection procedure. After discovery and extensive litigation, Judge Thompson issued an order on June 21 and June 22, 2001 denying both motions.

Judge Thompson denied the defendants' motion to dismiss the plaintiffs' disparate-impact Title VII claims due to Eleventh Amendment immunity on June 1, 1998. 4 F. Supp. 2d 1092. The defendants appealed, and the Eleventh Circuit (Judges R. Lanier Anderson III, Gerald B. Tjoflat, and Peter T. Fay) affirmed in a December 29, 1999 opinion. The court explained that Congress had abrogated states' sovereign immunity when it enacted Title VII's disparate impact provisions, and that the Fourteenth Amendment's enforcement power authorized Congress's action. 198 F.3d 1305.

Throughout litigation, some intervention complaints were converted into separate lawsuits while others were consolidated into this case. For example, the court on July 2, 1998 confirmed the non-consolidation of Reynolds v. Alabama Department of Transportation. However, United States v. Ballard, a case that was consolidated with Reynolds, was declared to be correctly consolidated with this present case. Thus, the court's aforementioned denial of defendants' motion to dismiss dealt with the consolidated cases of Reynolds and Ballard, and in doing so, addressed the same concern in this case. An attempt to consolidate this case and Reynolds in the Eleventh Circuit on appeal was again denied on July 30, 2003.

On April 5, 2001, the court dismissed the Title VII actions against the individual defendants in their individual and official capacities, leaving those claims only against state entities. For non-Title VII claims, the court dismissed the claims as against the state entities generally and against the individual defendants as it pertained to damages. Thus, the remaining non-Title VII claims were against individual defendants in their official capacities for injunctive relief.

On March 17, 2003, the plaintiffs again filed motions for certification of both a plaintiff class and a defendant class. On December 27, 2004, the defendant filed motion for summary judgment, which was denied by Judge Thompson on May 3, 2005. On March 24, 2006, the defendant filed a motion for a ruling on the class certification claims of 2003.

On July 5, 2005, the named plaintiff Eugene Crum, Jr. entered a stipulation to dismiss their claims, and the court dismissed Crum's claims on July 21, 2005.

Starting on May 2, 2007, Judge Thompson granted multiple motions to intervene that were filed throughout the 15-year litigation period. In doing so, Judge Thompson converted any related complaints-in-intervention to separate lawsuits. At this point, nearly all the attorneys filed individual motions to withdraw, and all such motions were granted. This lasted through the year 2009. On November 30, 2009, Judge Thompson denied class certification.

Beginning in February 2013, stipulations regarding dismissal of claims began being filed, leading the court to dismiss individual plaintiffs and their claims from the case. The court further dismissed the claims of plaintiffs who had passed away over the course of litigation. Additionally, the court began granting defendants' motions for summary judgment as to individual plaintiffs or, in the alternative, defendants' motions to dismiss for want of prosecution.

On August 7, 2017, the court granted a motion to convert plaintiff John Bradford's complaint into a separate lawsuit and further ordered the closing of this case.

Joshua Arocho - 06/26/2012
Matthew Feng - 04/01/2021


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Issues and Causes of Action
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Issues
Constitutional Clause
Equal Protection
Discrimination-area
Discharge / Constructive Discharge / Layoff
Discipline
Hiring
Other Conditions of Employment (including assignment, transfer, hours, working conditions, etc)
Pay / Benefits
Promotion
Training
Discrimination-basis
Race discrimination
General
Disparate Impact
Disparate Treatment
Pattern or Practice
Race
Black
Causes of Action 42 U.S.C. § 1981
42 U.S.C. § 1983
Title VII (including PDA), 42 U.S.C. § 2000e
Defendant(s) State of Alabama
Plaintiff Description Class certification denied. Attempted class was: all African-Americans who applied for employment opportunities with the State of Alabama, or would have applied for such opportunities in the absence of the racial discrimination challenged in defendant’s selection procedure.
Class action status sought Yes
Class action status granted No
Filed Pro Se No
Prevailing Party Defendant
Public Int. Lawyer No
Nature of Relief None
Source of Relief None
Filed 03/24/1994
Case Closing Year 2017
Case Ongoing No
Additional Resources
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  See this case at CourtListener.com (May provide additional documents and, for active cases, real-time alerts)
Court Docket(s)
M.D. Ala.
08/07/2017
2:94-cv-00356
EE-AL-0100-9000.pdf | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
General Documents
M.D. Ala.
09/15/1994
Motion for Certification of a Defendant Class of All Agencies and Departments at the State of Alabama [ECF# 122]
EE-AL-0100-0002.pdf | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
M.D. Ala.
09/15/1994
Motion for Certification of a Plaintiff Class [ECF# 124]
EE-AL-0100-0001.pdf | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
U.S. Court of Appeals
12/29/1999
Opinion (11th Circuit) (198 F.3d 1305)
EE-AL-0100-0013.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Source: Google Scholar
U.S. Court of Appeals
04/11/2000
Judgment from USCA 11th Circuit Affirming District Court's Decision Denying Defendant's Motion to Dismiss Disparate Impact Claims against State of AL [Ct. of App. ECF# 362]
EE-AL-0100-0004.pdf | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
M.D. Ala.
04/05/2001
Order [ECF# 416]
EE-AL-0100-0015.pdf | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
M.D. Ala.
03/17/2003
Motion for Certification of Plaintiff Class [ECF# 606]
EE-AL-0100-0012.pdf | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
M.D. Ala.
03/17/2003
Motion For Certification of a Defendant Class of All Agencies and Departments of the State of Alabama [ECF# 608]
EE-AL-0100-0003.pdf | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
M.D. Ala.
03/17/2003
Motion for Certification of a Defendant Class of All Agencies and Departments of the State of Alabama [ECF# 608]
EE-AL-0100-0007.pdf | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
M.D. Ala.
05/03/2005
Order (Denying Defendant's Motion for Summary Judgment) [ECF# 737]
EE-AL-0100-0005.pdf | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
M.D. Ala.
07/15/2005
Defendants' Memorandum of Law in Support of Motion for Certification Pursuant to 28 U.S.C. 1292(b) [ECF# 746]
EE-AL-0100-0006.pdf | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
M.D. Ala.
07/15/2005
Plaintiffs' Response to Defendants' Motion for Rule 54(b) Judgment, or in the Alternative Motion for Certification Pursuant to 28 U.S.C. §1292(b) [ECF# 747]
EE-AL-0100-0008.pdf | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
M.D. Ala.
07/21/2005
Judgment (Dismissing Individual Claims of Eugene Crum with Prejudice) [ECF# 748]
EE-AL-0100-0009.pdf | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
M.D. Ala.
10/02/2006
Opinion [ECF# 769] (2006 WL 2841081)
EE-AL-0100-0014.pdf | WESTLAW | Detail
Source: Westlaw
M.D. Ala.
07/28/2009
Request for a Ruling on the Motion for Class Certification [ECF# 829]
EE-AL-0100-0011.pdf | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
M.D. Ala.
11/30/2009
Order (Denying Certification of Plaintiff and Defendant Class) [ECF# 834]
EE-AL-0100-0010.pdf | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
show all people docs
Judges Anderson, Robert Lanier III (Fifth Circuit, Eleventh Circuit) show/hide docs
EE-AL-0100-0004
Coody, Charles S. (M.D. Ala.) show/hide docs
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Fay, Peter Thorp (S.D. Fla., Fifth Circuit, Eleventh Circuit) show/hide docs
EE-AL-0100-0004
Thompson, Myron Herbert (N.D. Ala., M.D. Ala.) show/hide docs
EE-AL-0100-0005 | EE-AL-0100-0009 | EE-AL-0100-0010 | EE-AL-0100-0014 | EE-AL-0100-0015 | EE-AL-0100-9000
Tjoflat, Gerald Bard (M.D. Fla., Fifth Circuit, Eleventh Circuit) show/hide docs
EE-AL-0100-0004 | EE-AL-0100-0013
Plaintiff's Lawyers Adams, Russell Wayne (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Alstyne, Abigail Pruyn Van (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Blizzard, Henry Wallace III (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Calamusa, Rocco Jr. (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Childs, Robert F. Jr. (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Donahue, Susan Gale (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Ebbinghouse, Richard J (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Gallion, Thomas T. III (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Grider, Ricky (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Griffith, Amelia Haines (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Simon, Kell Ascher (Texas) show/hide docs
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Tepley, Peter John (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Wiggins, Robert L Jr. (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Defendant's Lawyers Abbot, Richard Taylor Jr. (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Allen, Edward Smith (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Avery, Abigail Hood (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Barker, Constance S. (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Barnett, Henry Clay Jr. (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Bates, Roger Lee (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Bell, Theodore Patrick (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Biggs, Gregory Marion (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Borden, Lisa Wright (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Breckenridge, John J. (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Butler, William O. III (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Byrne, Alice Ann (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Campbell, Andrew P (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Clemon, A. Michelle (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Coleman, John James III (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Corscadden, Scott William (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Craven, Larry Eugene (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Culberson, Mary Elizabeth (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Culverhouse, Renee D. (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Davis, Philip C. (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Dettling, Aaron L. (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Dowdy, Kenneth A. (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Evans, James Harold (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Ficquette, Sharon Elaine (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Fillingim, Gary W. (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Fleming, Margaret L. (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Freeman, Ashley Hawkins (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Fuller, Ben A. (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Gardner, William F. (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Garner, Gwendolyn Bulger (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Garrett, Billington Malone (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Gerard, Carol Robin (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Gillis, Henry Lewis (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Givhan, Robert Marc (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Gottlieb, Carl Robert Jr. (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Hamlett, Ashley (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Heidt, Frances (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Higgins, Pamela Robinson (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Hoaglund, Eric Daniel (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Holmes, John Barksdale III (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Hosp, Edward Andrew (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Huntley, Willie J. Jr. (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Hyde, Robbie (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Ippolito, Jim Robert Jr. (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Isler, Mai Lan Fogal (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Jackson, Christina Harris (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Jernigan, Adero Solvini (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Jones, George E. III (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Jordan, Nikaa Baugh (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Kelley, William Franklin Jr. (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Kelly, Anita L. (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Laurie, Robin Garrett (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Lee, Brandy Murphy (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Leitman, Eddie (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Lightfoot, Warren B Jr (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Long-Daniels, David Wayne (Georgia) show/hide docs
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Loper, David M. (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Marsh, Frank Decalve (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Masters, Daryl L. (Alabama) show/hide docs
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McGowin, Dana Wright (Alabama) show/hide docs
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McKinney, Ricky J. (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Meadows, Richard N. (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Miller, Keith S. (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Morrow, Roger Stephen (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Musso, Joe (Alabama) show/hide docs
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O'Neal, Lynne Stephens (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Osborn, James Michael (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Park, John J. Jr. (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Pilcher, Mary Egleston (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Prendergast, William Francis (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Proctor, Laura Ellison (Tennessee) show/hide docs
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Pryor, William Holcombe Jr. (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Reed, Charles R. (California) show/hide docs
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Romine, John J. (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Russell, Robert Jackson (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Shashy, William A. (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Sheffield, Erica L. (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Sinclair, Thomas O'Neal (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Thomas, Kim Tobias (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Vega, Mathew A. (Tennessee) show/hide docs
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Wells, Barbara Jean (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Other Lawyers Bain, Charles Mark (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Calvin, Joseph Hiram III (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Cooks, Roderick Twain (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Page, Kimberly C. (Alabama) show/hide docs
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Winston, Lee D (Alabama) show/hide docs
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