Case: Gonzales v. Rivkind

8:83-cv-00039 | U.S. District Court for the Middle District of Florida

Filed Date: Jan. 10, 1983

Closed Date: 1992

Clearinghouse coding complete

Case Summary

On January 10, 1983 a group of individuals whose vehicles had been seized by federal agents pursuant to the INS Miami Sector Seizure Program because they had been used to transport undocumented aliens filed a class action lawsuit in the U.S. District Court for the Middle District of Florida to challenge the forfeiture procedures of the Immigration and Nationality Act, 8 U.S.C. §1324. Plaintiff maintained that the seizures ran afoul of due process and equal protection in that vehicle owners were…

On January 10, 1983 a group of individuals whose vehicles had been seized by federal agents pursuant to the INS Miami Sector Seizure Program because they had been used to transport undocumented aliens filed a class action lawsuit in the U.S. District Court for the Middle District of Florida to challenge the forfeiture procedures of the Immigration and Nationality Act, 8 U.S.C. §1324. Plaintiff maintained that the seizures ran afoul of due process and equal protection in that vehicle owners were denied a prompt probable cause hearing before a neutral judicial officer. Moreover, vehicle owners were charged seizure related costs and were forced to sign indemnity agreements before their seized vehicles would be returned, even in cases where the government was not able to prove a violation of law. They requested injunctive relief to stop the seizure program.

The government sought dismissal of the case and summary judgment. Both defense motions were denied.

On May 25, 1984, the District Court (Judge William J. Castagna) certified the case as a class action. In 1986, the Court entered summary judgment in favor of the plaintiff class on its due process claim and granted injunctive relief. The Court's injunctive order prohibited the INS from seizing vehicles without warrants pursuant to 8 U.S.C. § 1324(b) unless the government provided a probable cause hearing within 72 hours. The Court also prohibited the government from charging costs related to seizure or impoundment of any vehicle that was not found to have been involved in a violation of 8 U.S.C. § 1324. Any such charges that were previously assessed were to be refunded. Gonzales v. Rivkind, 629 F.Supp. 236 (M.D. Fla. 1986). The government appealed. The U.S. Court of Appeals for the 11th Circuit (Judge Edmondson) reversed, finding no due process violation. The case was remanded for consideration of whether the seizure program violated equal protection. Gonzales v. Rivkind, 858 F.2d. 657. (11th Cir. 1988).

The PACER docket reflects that in February 1992, the District Court ordered the plaintiffs of their intent to pursue any remaining claims. It appears that the plaintiffs failed to respond to the Court's order and the case was closed. No further activity was noted.

Summary Authors

Brian Ponton (8/22/2007)

People


Judge(s)

Castagna, William John (Florida)

Edmondson, James Larry (Georgia)

Attorneys(s) for Plaintiff

Lacayo, Tillie (Florida)

Leto, Nora (Florida)

Attorneys(s) for Defendant

Brown, William C. (District of Columbia)

England, Lynn (Florida)

Hollenhorst, Thomas (District of Columbia)

Judge(s)

Castagna, William John (Florida)

Edmondson, James Larry (Georgia)

Attorneys(s) for Plaintiff

Lacayo, Tillie (Florida)

Leto, Nora (Florida)

Attorneys(s) for Defendant

Brown, William C. (District of Columbia)

England, Lynn (Florida)

Hollenhorst, Thomas (District of Columbia)

Documents in the Clearinghouse

Document

Docket (PACER)

Dec. 1, 1988 Docket
115

Opinion

629 F.Supp. 236, 1986 U.S.Dist.LEXIS 30391

Jan. 15, 1986 Order/Opinion

Opinion

U. S. Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit

858 F.2d 657

Oct. 4, 1988 Order/Opinion

Docket

Last updated May 12, 2022, 8 p.m.

ECF Number Description Date Link
1

COMPLAINT filed for Declaratory and Injunctive Relief. (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

Jan. 10, 1983
2

MOTION by Plaintiffs Tommy Ramos and Manuel Gonzales for appointment of Special Process Server. (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

Jan. 10, 1983
3

ORDER granting [2-1] motion for appointment of Special Process Server. ( Signed by Judge Ben Krentzman ) (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

Jan. 10, 1983
4

MOTION by Plaintiffs Tommy Ramos, Manuel Gonzales for preliminary injunction. (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

Jan. 10, 1983
5

MEMORANDUM by Plaintiffs Tommy Ramos, Manuel Gonzales in support of [4-1] motion for preliminary injunction. (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

Jan. 10, 1983

SUMMONS(ES) issued for Alan Nelson, Robert Adams, Joe Howerton . Consent(s) issued. (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

Jan. 10, 1983
6

ORDER Transferring Case to Hon. William J. Castagna with his consent for all further proceedings. ( Signed by Judge Ben Krentzman ) (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

Jan. 13, 1983
7

ORDER: DENYING Plaintiffs' [4-1] motion for preliminary injunction without prejudice. Plaintiffs shall have leave to amend their complaint and to file any necessary supporting papers within ten days from this date.( Signed by Judge William J. Castagna ) (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

Jan. 17, 1983
8

MOTION by Plaintiffs Tommy Ramos, Manuel Gonzales for Class Certification. (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

Jan. 19, 1983
9

MEMORANDUM by Plaintiffs Tommy Ramos, Manuel Gonzales in support of [8-1] motion for Class Certification. (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

Jan. 19, 1983
10

NOTICE by Plaintiffs Tommy Ramos, Manuel Gonzales of withdrawalof Plaintiffs' Motion for Preliminary Injunction. (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

Jan. 26, 1983
11

RETURN OF SERVICE executed as to Alan Nelson, Robert Adams, Joe Howerton 1/14/83 pursuant to Affidavit of Federico Hernandez. Answer due on 2/3/83 for Joe Howerton, for Robert Adams, for Alan Nelson (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

Feb. 4, 1983
12

NOTICE by Plaintiffs Tommy Ramos, Manuel Gonzales of taking deposition of Robert Adams, Lloyd Lofland and Frank Wilson, 2/24/83. (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

Feb. 7, 1983
13

NOTICE by Plaintiffs Tommy Ramos, Manuel Gonzales of taking deposition of Calvin Vaughn, Agent Powell and Agent Nelson, 2/21/83. (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

Feb. 7, 1983
14

NOTICE by Plaintiffs Tommy Ramos, Manuel Gonzales of taking deposition of Dan Gibson, 2/23/83. (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

Feb. 7, 1983
15

RENEWED request of Plaintiff for production of documents. (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

Feb. 7, 1983
16

AMENDED COMPLAINT by Plaintiffs Tommy Ramos, Manuel Gonzales. (Answer due 3/10/83 for Joe Howerton, for Perry A. Rivkind, for Robert Adams, for Alan Nelson ) amending [1-1] complaint against USA. (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

Feb. 28, 1983
17

MOTION by Defendants to dismiss the Complaint for failure to state a claim upon which relief can be granted. (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

March 10, 1983
18

MEMORANDUM by Defendants in support of Defendants [17-1] motion to dismiss the Complaint for failure to state a claim upon which relief can be granted. (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

March 10, 1983
19

MOTION by Defendants for protective order re: discovery. referred to Judge Thomas G. Wilson (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

March 10, 1983
21

MOTION by Defendants for protective order staying discoverry. referred to Judge William J. Castagna (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

March 15, 1983
22

MEMORANDUM by Defendants in support of [21-1] motion for protective order staying discoverry. (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

March 15, 1983
23

RESPONSE by Plaintiffs to Defendants' [21-1] motion for protective order staying discoverry. (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

March 15, 1983
24

ORDER denying Defendants [21-1] motion for protective order staying discoverry. ( Signed by Judge William J. Castagna ) (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

March 15, 1983
25

RESPONSE by Plaintiffs to [17-1] motion to dismiss the Complaint for failure to state a claim upon which relief can be granted. (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

March 24, 1983
26

NOTICE of attorney appearance of Jeffrey D. Fisher, Special Assistant U. S. Attorney for Defendants Alan Nelson, Robert Adams, Perry A. Rivkind, Joe Howerton, USA. (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

April 4, 1983
27

MOTION by Defendants with memorandum in support for protective order re: depositions. referred to Judge Thomas G. Wilson (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

April 4, 1983
28

ORDER denying Defendants' [27-1] motion for protective order re: depositions. ( Signed by Judge William J. Castagna ) (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

April 7, 1983
29

RESPONSE by Plaintiffs to Defendants [27-1] motion for protective order re: depositions. (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

April 7, 1983
30

MOTION & Memorandum by Plaintiffs for an Order compelling Defendant Adams and his employee Border Patrol Agents to appear for deposition. (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

April 7, 1983
31

ORDER denying without prejudice Plaintiffs' [30-1] motion for an Order compelling Defendant Adams and his employee Border Patrol Agents to appear for deposition. ( Signed by Judge William J. Castagna ) (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

April 26, 1983
32

ORDER denying Defendants' [17-1] motion to dismiss the Complaint for failure to state a claim upon which relief can be granted. ( Signed by Judge William J. Castagna ) (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

April 26, 1983
35

ANSWER to Complaint by Defendant. (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

May 17, 1983
33

RENOTICE of taking deposition of Robert Adams, et al. (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

June 6, 1983
34

CERTIFICATE of Service of Plaintiffs' First Interrogatories. (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

June 6, 1983
35

(35-A) ORDER Requiring Status Information. Status information due by 7/10/83. ( Signed by Judge William J. Castagna ) (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

June 24, 1983
36

(35-C) RESPONSE to Order Requiring Status Information by Plaintiffs. Discovery: Five months; Trial: Four to Five days; Settlement Probability: Unknown. (lgl) Modified on 12/12/1991 (Entered: 12/12/1991)

July 13, 1983
35

(35-D) NOTICE of frist status conference, October 6, 1983. (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

July 28, 1983
35

(35-E) ORDER for limiting discovery to March 2, 1984; Pre-trial conference March 20, 1984 at 11:30 a.m.; Non-jury trial for the weeks of April 2, 9, 16, 23, 1984. ( Signed by Judge William J. Castagna ) (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

July 28, 1983
35

(35-F) SUGGESTION by Defendants of Mootness of Motion to Dismiss for lack of subject matter jurisdiction and memorandum. (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

Oct. 26, 1983
35

(35-G) ORDER: Plaintiffs shall respond to Defendants' Suggestion of Mootness within ten days of the date of this order, when the Court will rule with or without a response. s/11/17/83. ( Signed by Judge William J. Castagna ) (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

Nov. 21, 1983
35

(35-H) MEMORANDUM by Plaintiffs in opposition to Defendants [35-1] Suggestion of Mootness and Motion for lack of subject matter jurisdiction. (Defendants filed 11/25/83) (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

Dec. 1, 1983
35

(35-I) ORDER: Defendant's Suggestion of Mootness and Motion to Dismiss are DENIED. Defendants' are directed to respond to Plaintiff's Motion for Class Certification within ten days of the date of this Order. If Defendants do not file such a response, the Court will rule on the Motion and may grant relief requested. ( Signed by Judge William J. Castagna ) (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

Dec. 1, 1983
35

(35-J) AFFIDAVIT of Tillie Lacayo. (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

Dec. 7, 1983
36

MOTION by Plaintiffs to compel response to Plaintiffs' Interrogatories. (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

Dec. 7, 1983
37

MEMORANDUM by Plaintiffs in support of [36-1] motion to compel response to Plaintiffs' Interrogatories. (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

Dec. 7, 1983
38

MOTION & Memorandum by Plaintiffs for an enlargement of time to respond to Plaintiff's Motion for Class Certification. (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

Dec. 16, 1983
39

UNOPPOSED MOTION by Defendants for enlargement of time to respond to the Motion to Compel. (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

Dec. 16, 1983
40

ORDER granting [38-1] motion for an enlargement of time to respond to Plaintiff's Motion for Class Certification and granting [36-1] motion to compel response to Plaintiffs' Interrogatories. Defendants shall have until December 23, 1983 to respond. ( Signed by Judge William J. Castagna ) (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

Dec. 19, 1983
42

MOTION by Defendants with memorandum in support for summary judgment. (Filed 1/3/84) (Exhibits attached) (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

Jan. 7, 1984
43

SECOND UNOPPOSED MOTION & Memorandum by Defendants for an enlargement of time to respond to the Motion for Class Certification. (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

Jan. 7, 1984
44

REQUEST & Memorandum for Oral Argument on the Motion for Summary Judgment, by Defendants. (Filed 1/3/84) (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

Jan. 7, 1984
45

NOTICE by Defendants of filing Exhibits E and F to the Motion for Summary Judgment. (lgl) Modified on 12/12/1991 (Entered: 12/12/1991)

Jan. 7, 1984
46

MEMORANDUM by Defendants in opposition to Plaintiffs' [8-1] motion for Class Certification. (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

Jan. 9, 1984
47

MEMORANDUM by Plaintiffs in opposition to Defendants [42-1] motion for summary judgment. (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

Jan. 13, 1984
48

ORDER: (1) Defendants' [42-1] Motion for Summary Judgment is DENIED. (2) Plaintiff's [36-1] Motion to Compel answers to Interrogatories is GRANTED. (3) The Court defers ruling on Plaintiff's Motion for Class Certification. ( Signed by Judge William J. Castagna ) (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

Feb. 7, 1984
49

DEFENDANTS NOTICE of substitution of Parties (filed to substitute Perry Rivkind as current Director, INS in place of Joe Howerton, retired). (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

Feb. 10, 1984
50

STIPULATION extending time for discovery until 3/30/84. (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

March 12, 1984
51

MOTION by Plaintiffs to extend time. (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

March 14, 1984
52

MEMORANDUM by Plaintiffs in support of [51-1] motion to extend time. (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

March 14, 1984
53

MOTION by Defendants for a continuance of the pretrial Order, the pretrial conference and the trial. (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

March 15, 1984
54

ORDER: (1) Plaintiffs' [51-1] motion for extension is GRANTED. (2) Defendants' [53-1] Motion for continuance is GRANTED. ( Signed by Judge William J. Castagna ) (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

March 16, 1984
55

MOTION by Plaintiffs to extend time. (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

March 30, 1984
56

MEMORANDUM by Plaintiffs in support of [55-1] motion to extend time. (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

March 30, 1984
57

ORDER: (1) Plaintiffs' [55-1] Second Motion for extension of time is GRANTED and Plaintiffs shall move for class certification within two weeks of the date of this Order, after which defendants shall have ten days to file a response to such motion. ( Signed by Judge William J. Castagna ) (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

April 3, 1984
59

MEMORANDUM by Plaintiffs in support of [58-1] motion for Class Certification. (with Exhibits A-H -- in separate folder) (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

April 16, 1984
60

RESPONSE by Defendants to Plaintiffs' [58-1] motion for Class Certification. (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

May 3, 1984
61

REPLY by Plaintiffs to Defendants' response to [58-1] motion for Class Certification. (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

May 14, 1984
62

ORDER: 1) Perry Rivkind is substituted for Joe Howerton as Defendant in this action. ( Signed 5/24/84 by Judge William J. Castagna ) (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

May 25, 1984
63

ORDER: 1) Plaintiffs' [58-1] Motion for Class Action Certification is GRANTED. 2) The Court certifies the following class of plaintiffs: All persons whose vehicles have been or will be seized by agents from District 6 of the Immigration and Naturalization Service and who have not been or will not be afforded a prompt probable cause hearing before an impartial individual; 3) The Court further certifies the following sub-class of Plaingiffs: All vehicle owners whose vehicles were not used in violation of 8 U.S.C. Section 1324(a), but who must pay costs of seizure and release Defendants from liability in order to get their vehicles returned. ( Signed by Judge William J. Castagna ) (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

May 25, 1984
64

SCHEDULING ORDER (re: estimate of time required to complete discovery, trial, pending motions and/or probability of settlement. (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

June 26, 1984

SCHEDULING ORDER returned: discovery complete 0-60 days; trial 3-5 days; remote possibility of settlement, no pending motions. (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

July 23, 1984
65

NOTICE OF STATUS CONFERENCE: 8/22/84 at 2:00 p.m., 611 N. Florida Avenue, Tampa, Florida. s/WJC/Notified. (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

July 23, 1984
66

SCHEDULING ORDER setting Discovery cutoff 1/4/85 ; Pretrial conference for 1:30 1/22/85 ; Case set for non-jury trial during the weeks of February 4, 11, 18 and 25, 1985, before Judge Castagna.( signed by Judge William J. Castagna ) (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

July 23, 1984

MAGISTRATE CONSENT FORMS mailed. (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

July 23, 1984
67

MOTION by Plaintiffs for protective order regarding matters raised in Defendants' Motion to Compel Answers. (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

July 31, 1984
68

MOTION by Defendants with memorandum in support to compel answers to certified questions. Exhbitis A, B and C attached. (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

Aug. 16, 1984
69

MOTION by attorney Nora Leto to leave to file withdraw as counsel for Plaintiffs Alberto Cabrera and Tommy Ramos. (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

Aug. 16, 1984
70

MEMORANDUM by Alberto Cabrera, Tommy Ramos in support of [69-1] motion to leave to file withdraw as counsel for Plaintiffs Alberto Cabrera and Tommy Ramos. (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

Aug. 16, 1984
72

ORDER: 1) Defendants' [68-1] motion to compel is GRANTED; 2) Plaintiffs' [67-1] Motion for Protective Order is DENIED except that Plaintiffs in subsequent depositions may assert the privilege against selfincrimination for those questions indicated above. ( Signed by Judge William J. Castagna ) (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

Aug. 20, 1984
73

NOTICE OF STATUS CONFERENCE: 11/28/84 at 2:00 p.m. before Judge Castagna. (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

Aug. 24, 1984
74

MOTION by Defendants with memorandum in support to continue status conference scheduled for 11/28/84. (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

Nov. 19, 1984
75

ORDER: 1) That the status conference scheduled for November 28, 1984 at 2:00 p.m. is rescheduled for the 19th day of December 1984 at 2:00 o'clock. miscellaneous hearing to 2:00 11/28/84 for [73-1] notice ( Signed by Judge William J. Castagna ) (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

Nov. 21, 1984
76

MOTION by Plaintiffs (with propsoed Memorandum of law of 45 pages) for summary judgment. Exhibits 1 through 28 in support of Memorandum [in separate folder] (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

Feb. 4, 1985
77

REQUEST for permission to file a memorandum in excess of 20 pages in length. (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

Feb. 4, 1985
78

MOTION & Memorandum by Plaintiffs for oral argument on the Motion for summary Judgment. (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

Feb. 4, 1985
79

MOTION by Defendants for extension of time to Respond to Plantiffs' Motion for Summary Judgment. (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

March 4, 1985
80

RESPONSE by Plaintiffs to Defendants' [79-1] motion for extension of time to Respond to Plantiffs' Motion for Summary Judgment. (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

March 8, 1985
81

MOTION by counsel for Plaintiff Luis Armas-Sanchez for leave to withdraw as counsel. (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

March 8, 1985
82

MOTION by Plaintiffs for protective order. -Returned per #87. (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

March 8, 1985
83

ORDER: 1) that the Plaintiffs' [77-1] Motion is GRANTED; 2) That the Defendants' [79-1] Motion for enlargement of time is GRANTED and they shall file their response to the Plaintiffs' Motion for Summary Judgment within 20 days of receiving transcripts of Plaintiffs' depositions. ( Signed 3/12/85 by Judge William J. Castagna ) ( Notified 3/13/85) (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

March 13, 1985
84

MEMORANDUM by Plaintiffs in support of Plaintiffs' [76-1] motion for summary judgment. - Returned per #100 see #102. (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

March 13, 1985
85

RESPONSE by Defendants in opposition to [81-1] motion for leave to withdraw as counsel. (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

March 18, 1985
87

ORDER: 1) That the [82-1] motion for protective order is denied without prejudice; 2) That the Clerk shall return the Motion for Protective Order and the attached Memorandum of law with Exhibits to Plaintiffs' counsel. ( Signed by Judge William J. Castagna ) (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

March 21, 1985
88

MOTION by Defendants with memorandum in support to compel to produce documents and for for sanctions. (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

March 28, 1985
89

REPLY by Plaintiffs to Defendants response to Plaintiffs [81-1] motion for leave to withdraw as counsel. (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

March 29, 1985
90

MOTION by Plaintiffs for a discovery conference. (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

March 29, 1985
91

RENEWED MOTION by Plaintiffs for protective order regarding depositions. (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

March 29, 1985
92

ORDER: That the Defendants [88-1] motion to compel and [88-2] motion for sanctions is hereby DENIED without prejudice.( Signed by Thomas Wilson 3/29/85 and Notified 4/185. ) (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

March 29, 1985
93

RESPONSE by Defendants in opposition to Plaintiffs [90-1] motion for a discovery conference. (lgl) (Entered: 12/12/1991)

April 8, 1985

State / Territory: Florida

Case Type(s):

Immigration and/or the Border

Key Dates

Filing Date: Jan. 10, 1983

Closing Date: 1992

Case Ongoing: No

Plaintiffs

Plaintiff Description:

All persons whose vehicles have been or will be seized by agents from District Six of the Immigration and Naturalization Service and who have not been or will not be afforded a prompt probable cause hearing before an impartial individual.

Plaintiff Type(s):

Private Plaintiff

Public Interest Lawyer: No

Filed Pro Se: Unknown

Class Action Sought: Yes

Class Action Outcome: Granted

Defendants

Immigration and Naturalization Service, State

Case Details

Causes of Action:

42 U.S.C. § 1983

Constitutional Clause(s):

Due Process

Due Process: Procedural Due Process

Equal Protection

Availably Documents:

Trial Court Docket

Any published opinion

Outcome

Prevailing Party: Defendant

Nature of Relief:

None

Source of Relief:

None

Issues

General:

Search policies

Immigration/Border:

Border police

Constitutional rights