Case: U.S. v. American Family Mutual Insurance Company

2:90-cv-00759 | U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Wisconsin

Filed Date: July 27, 1990

Closed Date: 2000

Clearinghouse coding complete

Case Summary

Plaintiffs, the NAACP and African-American homeowners in Milwaukee, filed suit in 1990 in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Wisconsin, alleging that Defendant-Insurance Company had systemically discriminated against minority homeowners in violation of the Fair Housing Act (FHA), 42 U.S.C. 3601 et seq., and the Wisconsin Open Housing Law, Wis. Stat. 101.22. Plaintiffs alleged that the Defendant refused to extend homeowners insurance or extended such insurance on less favorable …

Plaintiffs, the NAACP and African-American homeowners in Milwaukee, filed suit in 1990 in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Wisconsin, alleging that Defendant-Insurance Company had systemically discriminated against minority homeowners in violation of the Fair Housing Act (FHA), 42 U.S.C. 3601 et seq., and the Wisconsin Open Housing Law, Wis. Stat. 101.22. Plaintiffs alleged that the Defendant refused to extend homeowners insurance or extended such insurance on less favorable terms to homeowners in predominantly minority neighborhoods in Milwaukee. U.S. District Court Judge J.P. Stadtmueller dismissed the FHA and state law claim, finding that the FHA does not cover insurance redlining and that the Plaintiffs lacked standing to assert the state law claim.

The Seventh Circuit reversed the District Court's ruling on the FHA claim on October 20, 1992. NAACP v. American Family Mut. Ins. Co., 978 F.2d 287 (7th Cir. 1992). The federal appellate court held that the FHA's prohibition against race-based housing discrimination includes discrimination involving race-based denials of homeowners insurance. The Supreme Court denied the Defendant-Insurance Company's petition for writ of certiorari in 1993. American Family Mut. Ins. Co. v. NAACP, 508 U.S. 907 (1993).

After the appellate court's ruling, the Department of Justice filed suit against the Defendant-Insurance Company on the FHA claim, and the District Court certified the private Plaintiffs' case as a class action. Without ever entering fact-findings, in 1995 the District Court accepted the parties' consent decree, which is available at http://www.usdoj.gov/crt/housing/documents/amfamsettle.htm.

Under the terms of the consent decree, American Family agreed to an injunction against racial discrimination in insurance lending; to market its products and services to predominantly minority neighborhoods of Milwaukee; and to implement objective, race-neutral criteria for extending insurance coverage. The Defendant also consented to future testing procedures and to the creation of a Plaintiffs' committee to monitor implementation of the consent decree. The Defendant also agree to pay $9.5 million to community-based programs in Milwaukee and to create a $5 million fund to provide $10,000 in compensation to each person who had been discriminated against in the terms and conditions of their homeowners insurance or who had been wrongfully denied homeowners insurance by the Defendant. The District Court retained jurisdiction over the consent for five years.

Summary Authors

Andrew Nash (6/8/2008)

People


Judge(s)

Blackmun, Harry Andrew (District of Columbia)

Coffey, John Louis (Wisconsin)

Easterbrook, Frank Hoover (Illinois)

Fairchild, Thomas Edward (Wisconsin)

Kennedy, Anthony McLeod (District of Columbia)

O'Connor, Sandra Day (District of Columbia)

Randa, Rudolph Thomas (Wisconsin)

Rehnquist, William Hubbs (District of Columbia)

Scalia, Antonin (District of Columbia)

Souter, David Hackett (District of Columbia)

Judge(s)

Blackmun, Harry Andrew (District of Columbia)

Coffey, John Louis (Wisconsin)

Easterbrook, Frank Hoover (Illinois)

Fairchild, Thomas Edward (Wisconsin)

Kennedy, Anthony McLeod (District of Columbia)

O'Connor, Sandra Day (District of Columbia)

Randa, Rudolph Thomas (Wisconsin)

Rehnquist, William Hubbs (District of Columbia)

Scalia, Antonin (District of Columbia)

Souter, David Hackett (District of Columbia)

Stadtmueller, Joseph Peter (Wisconsin)

Stevens, John Paul (District of Columbia)

Thomas, Clarence (District of Columbia)

White, Byron Raymond (District of Columbia)

Attorneys(s) for Plaintiff

Abrams, Willie (Maryland)

Berman, Robert S. (District of Columbia)

Bolden, Victor A. (New York)

First, Curry (Wisconsin)

Fisch, Susan Barbosa (District of Columbia)

Hall, James H. Jr. (Wisconsin)

Hancock, Paul F. (District of Columbia)

Hayes, Dennis Courtland (Maryland)

Jones, Elaine R. (New York)

Kelly, Walter F. (Wisconsin)

Koneazny, Peter M. (Wisconsin)

Lynch, William H. (Wisconsin)

Miller, Gretchen E. (Wisconsin)

Moran, Timothy (District of Columbia)

Patrick, Deval L. (District of Columbia)

Patterson, Patrick O. (Wisconsin)

Powell, John A. (New York)

Scanlon, Kerry Alan (District of Columbia)

Schneider, Thomas P. (Wisconsin)

Walrath, James (Wisconsin)

Attorneys(s) for Defendant

Eldridge, James F. (Wisconsin)

Esenberg, Richard M. (Wisconsin)

McGrath, Brian W. (Wisconsin)

Oberdorfer, John L. (District of Columbia)

Shriner, Thomas L. Jr. (Wisconsin)

Other Attorney(s)

Dunne, John R. (District of Columbia)

Goldman, Jeffrey S. (Illinois)

Konrad, Daniel J. (West Virginia)

Langley, Grant F. (Wisconsin)

Silver, Jessica Dunsay (District of Columbia)

Thome, Linda F. (District of Columbia)

Documents in the Clearinghouse

Document

Docket [PACER]

NAACP v. American Family Mutual

May 31, 2000 Docket

Order

NAACP v. American Family Mutual

1990 U.S.Dist.LEXIS 18522

Dec. 17, 1990 Order/Opinion

Opinion

NAACP v. American Family Mutual

U. S. Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit

978 F.2d 287

Dec. 7, 1992 Order/Opinion

Order [Denying Writ of Certiorari]

American Family Mutual v. NAACP

Supreme Court of the United States

508 U.S. 907

May 17, 1993 Order/Opinion

Consent Decree

NAACP v. American Family Mutual

No Court

July 13, 1995 Settlement Agreement

Docket

Last updated May 12, 2022, 8 p.m.

ECF Number Description Date Link
28

MOTION by pltfs for order for court to adopt proposed sch order (wied, )

Nov. 18, 1991
29

BRIEF by plaintiffs in support of motion for order for court to adopt proposed sch order [28-1] (wied, )

Nov. 18, 1991
31

BRIEF by defendant American Family Mutu in support of motion for protective order [30-1] (wied, ) (Entered: 11/19/1991)

Nov. 18, 1991
32

CERTIFICATE by defendant American Family Mutu in support of motions for protective order and cots. (wied, ) (Entered: 11/19/1991)

Nov. 18, 1991
33

AFFIDAVIT of Patricia Prime (wied, ) (Entered: 11/19/1991)

Nov. 18, 1991
34

AFFIDAVIT of Joye Peterson (wied, ) (Entered: 11/19/1991)

Nov. 18, 1991
35

AFFIDAVIT of Ann Walther (wied, ) (Entered: 11/19/1991)

Nov. 18, 1991
36

AFFIDAVIT of Alice Kissling (wied, ) (Entered: 11/19/1991)

Nov. 18, 1991
37

AFFIDAVIT of Alan Hunter (wied, ) (Entered: 11/19/1991)

Nov. 18, 1991
38

AFFIDAVIT of Brian McGrath (wied, ) (Entered: 11/19/1991)

Nov. 18, 1991
39

AFFIDAVIT of Steve Wilkie (wied, ) (Entered: 11/21/1991)

Nov. 18, 1991
40

ORDER by Judge J. P. Stadtmueller referring to Mag Judge Robert L. Bittner the motion for protective order [30-1]; file to RLB (cc: all counsel) (wied, ) (Entered: 11/25/1991)

Nov. 21, 1991
41

LETTER from defendants requesting the Court sign the proposed scheduling order enclosed with his 10/23/91 letter. (wied, )

Nov. 22, 1991
42

LETTER from plaintiffs re extension of time to file opposition brief to motion for protective order until 12/9/91. (wied, ) (Entered: 12/02/1991)

Nov. 26, 1991
43

ORDER by Judge J. P. Stadtmueller refering case to RLB for disposition of dispute re scheduling; documents to RLB (cc: all counsel) (wied, ) (Entered: 12/04/1991)

Dec. 2, 1991
44

MOTION by plaintiff to compel discovery , and for costs (wied, ) (Entered: 12/10/1991)

Dec. 9, 1991
45

BRIEF by plaintiff in SUPPORT of motion to compel discovery [44-1], of motion for costs [44-2] (wied, ) Modified on 12/10/1991 (Entered: 12/10/1991)

Dec. 9, 1991
45

BRIEF by plaintiffs in OPPOSITION to motion for protective order [30- 1] (wied, ) (Entered: 12/10/1991)

Dec. 9, 1991
46

AFFIDAVIT of WILLIAM H. LYNCH. (wied, ) (Entered: 12/10/1991)

Dec. 9, 1991
47

AFFIDAVIT of GRETCHEN MILLER in opposition to defendants motion for protective order and in support of plaintiffs motion to compel discovery. (wied, ) (Entered: 12/10/1991)

Dec. 9, 1991
48

ORDER by Mag Judge Robert L. Bittner ; Discovery ddl set for 3/1/93 ; Motion filing ddl set for 8/1/93 (cc: all counsel) (wied, ) (Entered: 12/11/1991)

Dec. 10, 1991
49

BRIEF by defendant American Family Mutu in opposition to motion to compel discovery [44-1] (wied, ) (Entered: 12/23/1991)

Dec. 20, 1991
50

AFFIDAVIT of Richard M. Esenberg (wied, ) (Entered: 12/23/1991)

Dec. 20, 1991
51

NOTICE of hearing setting hearing on motion to compel discovery [44- 1] 3:00 1/10/92 (cc: all counsel) (wied, )

Jan. 3, 1992
52

MOTION by plaintiffs to certify class action (wied, ) (Entered: 01/31/1992)

Jan. 30, 1992
53

BRIEF by plaintiffs in support of motion to certify class action [52-1] (wied, ) (Entered: 01/31/1992)

Jan. 30, 1992
54

AFFIDAVIT of Peter M. Koneazny with exh. (wied, ) Modified on 01/31/1992 (Entered: 01/31/1992)

Jan. 30, 1992
55

MOTION by plaintiffs to dismiss pltf Beverly Williams (wied, ) (Entered: 01/31/1992)

Jan. 30, 1992
56

CERTIFICATE OF COUNSEL respecting pltfs' motion to dismiss pltf Beverly Williams [55-1] (wied, ) (Entered: 01/31/1992)

Jan. 30, 1992
57

LETTER to RLB from pltf re proposed order. (wied, ) (Entered: 02/05/1992)

Feb. 4, 1992
58

LETTER from defendant American Family Mtl to RLB in response to Mr. Lynch's 2/4/92 letter. (wied, ) (Entered: 02/10/1992)

Feb. 7, 1992
59

CERTIFICATE of serv (wied, ) (Entered: 02/10/1992)

Feb. 7, 1992

MARGINAL ORDER by Judge J. P. Stadtmueller granting motion to dismiss pltf Beverly Williams [55-1] (cc: all counsel) (wied, ) (Entered: 02/28/1992)

Feb. 26, 1992
60

BRIEF by defendant American Family Mtl in opposition to pltfs' motion to certify class action [52-1] (wied, ) (Entered: 02/28/1992)

Feb. 27, 1992
61

AFFIDAVIT of Richard M. Esenberg in support of dft's brief in opposition to pltfs' motion for class certification (wied, ) Modified on 02/28/1992 (Entered: 02/28/1992)

Feb. 27, 1992
62

AFFIDAVIT of Scott Romito in support of dft's brief in opposition to pltfs' motion for class certification (wied, ) Modified on 02/28/1992 (Entered: 02/28/1992)

Feb. 27, 1992
63

AFFIDAVIT of James Schwartz in support of dft's brief in opposition to pltfs' motion for class certification (wied, ) Modified on 02/28/1992 (Entered: 02/28/1992)

Feb. 27, 1992
64

CERTIFICATE of MAILING by defendant American Family Mtl (wied, ) (Entered: 02/28/1992)

Feb. 27, 1992
66

ORDER by Judge J. P. Stadtmueller granting in part and denying in part pltf's motion to compel discovery [44-1]. Dft. will provide names and office addresses or last known home address. Dft does not have to identify or produce the names of minority agents but has agreed to produce any documents from which it identified African-American agents. Denying motion for protective order [30-1] as it relates to the race of American Family's employees and agents. With respect to "other lines" of insurance, the pltf's motion to compel further responses to document requests 14 and 16 are denied, the dft's motion for a protective order is granted, and the pltf is precluded form any inquiry into the dft's procedures and policies regarding lines of insurance other than homeowners' insurance. The pltf's motion to compel Alan Hunter and Bradley Gleason to respond to questions they refused to answer at their depositions is denied. The pltf's motion for sanctions is denied. terminating case referral to Mag Judge Robert L. Bittner File back to JPS 3/17/92. (cc: all counsel) (wied, ) (Entered: 03/17/1992)

March 16, 1992
67

REPLY BRIEF by plaintiffs in support of motion to certify class action [52-1] (wied, ) Modified on 03/18/1992 (Entered: 03/18/1992)

March 17, 1992
68

CERTIFICATE of SERVICE by plaintiffs (wied, ) (Entered: 03/18/1992)

March 17, 1992
69

LETTER from defendants' attorney, Richard M. Esenberg, regarding the proposed order sent at an earlier date. (wied, )

March 20, 1992
70

LETTER from atty First to clerk re address. (wied, )

March 27, 1992
71

NOTICE OF FILING ORIGINAL TRANSCRIPT of the deposition of Dennis H. Beaudry. (wied, )

April 6, 1992
72

NOTICE OF FILING ORIGINAL TRANSCRIPT of the deposition of James A. Baade. (wied, )

April 6, 1992
73

NOTICE OF FILING ORIGINAL TRANSCRIPT of the deposition of Spencer J. Du Four. (wied, )

April 6, 1992
74

STIPULATION and ORDER by Judge J. P. Stadtmueller: ; Discovery ddl set for 7/1/93; Motion filing ddl set for 12/1/93 ; ddl for pltfs to disclose expert witnesses is set for 9/1/92; ddl for dft to disclose expert witnesses is set for 90 days after dft obtains the transcripts of the depositions of pltfs' experts. (cc: all counsel) (wied, ) (Entered: 04/20/1992)

April 17, 1992
75

LETTER from Peter M. Koneazny regarding the stipulation as to class certification. (wied, )

June 3, 1992
76

STIPULATION AND ORDER by Judge J. P. Stadtmueller: IT IS HEREBY ORDERED that the plaintiff class definition is as stated. (cc: all counsel) (wied, ) (Entered: 09/25/1992)

Sept. 23, 1992
77

LETTER ORDER by Judge J. P. Stadtmueller: Case reassigned to Judge Rudolph T. Randa . (cc: all counsel) (wied, ) (Entered: 11/03/1992)

Nov. 2, 1992
78

NOTICE of change of address by Attorney Gretchen E. Miller (attorney for the plaintiffs'). (cad, ) (Entered: 11/09/1992)

Nov. 6, 1992
79

STIPULATION and ORDER by Judge Rudolph T. Randa : It Is Hereby Ordered, that American Family is ordered to produce computer tapes as described on the terms & conditions set forth (see file for stipulation). (cc: all counsel) (cad, ) (Entered: 11/10/1992)

Nov. 9, 1992

RECORD on appeal to be returned at a later date: Volumes of pleadings (1) & Loose pleadings(2) from U.S. Court of Appeals 91-1176 (cad, ) (Entered: 12/18/1992)

Dec. 17, 1992
80

CERTIFIED COPY of judgment from USCA affirming in part, reversing and remanding for proceedings consistent with the opinion of the USCA with attached slip opinion and bill of costs in the amount of $1041.60 taxed in favor of pltfs. (kmm, ) (Entered: 12/21/1992)

Dec. 17, 1992
81

STIPULATION and ORDER by Judge Rudolph T. Randa : That the foregoing revised scheduling order shall modify the scheduling orders previously entered in this action & shall control this action unless modified by a subsequent order ; Discovery ddl reset for 8/15/94 ; Motion filing ddl reset for 7/15/94 (cc: all counsel) (cad, ) (Entered: 01/12/1993)

Jan. 11, 1993

RECORD on appeal returned from U.S. Court of Appeals 91-117 6 (1) Volumes of Pleadings; (2) Loose Pleadings (cad, ) (Entered: 02/09/1993)

Feb. 4, 1993
82

NOTICE of hearing ; Final Pretrial conference set for 1/13/95 at 9:00 a.m. ; Jury trial set for 2/6/95 at 9:30 a.m. (cc: all counsel) (cad, ) (Entered: 03/04/1993)

March 3, 1993
83

STIPULATION and ORDER by Judge Rudolph T. Randa : That the defendant will supplement its responses to the Plaintiffs' Sixth Request for Production of Documents as described in the Stipulation and the plaintiffs will abide by the terms & conditions set forth in the Stipulation as to the use & dissemination of the information supplied by the defendants pursuant to the Stipulation (see the Stipulation & Order for details). (cc: all counsel) (cad, ) Modified on 04/13/1993 (Entered: 04/13/1993)

April 9, 1993
84

MOTION by defendant American Family Mtl to enforce the Scheduling Order (cad, )

Oct. 28, 1993
85

BRIEF by defendant American Family Mtl in support of motion to enforce the Scheduling Order [84-1] (cad, )

Oct. 28, 1993
86

AFFIDAVIT of Richard M. Esengerg (cad, )

Oct. 28, 1993
87

CERTIFICATE of Service (cad, )

Oct. 28, 1993
88

MOTION by plaintiffs' to Modify the Scheduling Order (cad, ) Modified on 11/18/1993

Nov. 18, 1993
89

BRIEF by plaintiffs' in support of motion to Modify the Scheduling Order [88-1] (cad, ) Modified on 11/18/1993

Nov. 18, 1993
90

AFFIDAVIT of Gretchen E. Miller (cad, )

Nov. 18, 1993
91

AFFIDAVIT of William Lynch (cad, )

Nov. 18, 1993
92

REPLY BRIEF by defendants' in support of motion to enforce the Scheduling Order [84-1] (cad, ) (Entered: 12/07/1993)

Dec. 6, 1993
92

BRIEF by defendants' in opposition to motion to Modify the Scheduling Order [88-1] (cad, ) (Entered: 12/07/1993)

Dec. 6, 1993
152

REPLY BRIEF by American Family Mtl in support of motion in limine to exclude evidence [118-1] (bjp, ) (Entered: 01/04/1995)

Jan. 3, 1994
93

MOTION by defendant American Family Mtl to exclude Expert Testimony (cad, ) (Entered: 02/11/1994)

Feb. 10, 1994
94

BRIEF by defendant American Family Mtl in support of motion to exclude Expert Testimony [93-1] (cad, ) (Entered: 02/11/1994)

Feb. 10, 1994
95

AFFIDAVIT of Kurt S. Meckstroth (cad, ) (Entered: 02/11/1994)

Feb. 10, 1994
96

AFFIDAVIT of Richard M. Esenberg (cad, ) (Entered: 02/11/1994)

Feb. 10, 1994
97

MOTION by Celestine Lindsey, Dorothy Listenbee, James Milner, Dianne Pratt, Marvin Pratt, Simon Williams, Beverly Williams, Lois Woods, NAACP to amend scheduling order (bjp, ) (Entered: 03/08/1994)

March 7, 1994
99

AFFIDAVIT/VERIFICATION of Richard M. Esenberg (mjk, )

March 24, 1994
98

BRIEF by defendant American Family Mtl in support of its motion to exclude expert testimony . . . . (bdr, ) (Entered: 05/18/1994)

March 24, 1994
98

. . . .BRIEF by defendant American Family Mtl in opposition to motion to amend scheduling order [97-1] (bdr, ) (Entered: 05/18/1994)

March 24, 1994
103

DECISION AND ORDER: by Judge Rudolph T. Randa amending motion to Modify the Scheduling Order [88-1], denying motion to enforce the Scheduling Order [84-1] (cc: all counsel) (mjk, ) (Entered: 05/05/1994)

April 3, 1994
100

MOTION by defendant American Family Mtl to withdraw motion (wied, )

April 14, 1994
101

CERTIFICATE of service. (eeb, )

April 14, 1994
102

STIPULATION and ORDER by Judge Rudolph T. Randa : granting motion to exclude expert testimony [98-1] (cc: all counsel) (bjp, ) (Entered: 04/21/1994)

April 20, 1994
104

STIPULATION and ORDER by Judge Rudolph T. Randa : ; Discovery ddl 11/15/94 (cc: all counsel) (bjp, ) (Entered: 05/10/1994)

May 6, 1994
105

ATTORNEY APPEARANCE for plaintiff NAACP by Walter F. Kelly (kmm, )

July 5, 1994
106

STIPULATION and ORDER to modify scheduling order by Judge Rudolph T. Randa : (cc: all counsel) (bjp, )

July 11, 1994
107

WITNESS list submitted by American Family Mtl (bjp, ) (Entered: 08/16/1994)

Aug. 15, 1994
108

MOTION by NAACP to bifurcate trial (bjp, ) (Entered: 10/18/1994)

Oct. 17, 1994
109

BRIEF by NAACP in support of motion to bifurcate trial [108-1] (bjp, ) (Entered: 10/18/1994)

Oct. 17, 1994
110

MOTION by NAACP to certify class action (bjp, ) (Entered: 10/18/1994)

Oct. 17, 1994
111

BRIEF by NAACP in support of motion to certify class action [110-1] (bjp, ) (Entered: 10/18/1994)

Oct. 17, 1994
112

PROPOSED Notice of class action submitted by NAACP (bjp, ) (Entered: 10/18/1994)

Oct. 17, 1994
113

LETTER from Atty. William Lynch regarding status conference (bjp, ) (Entered: 10/20/1994)

Oct. 19, 1994
114

MOTION by American Family Mtl for leave to file materials instanter (bjp, ) (Entered: 10/20/1994)

Oct. 19, 1994
115

SUPPLEMENT to lay witness list by American Family Mtl (bjp, ) (Entered: 10/20/1994)

Oct. 19, 1994
116

MOTION by American Family Mtl in limine to exclude testimony (bjp, ) Modified on 12/20/1994 (Entered: 10/20/1994)

Oct. 19, 1994
117

BRIEF by American Family Mtl in support of motion in limine [116-1] (bjp, ) (Entered: 10/20/1994)

Oct. 19, 1994
118

MOTION by American Family Mtl in limine to exclude evidence (bjp, ) Modified on 12/20/1994 (Entered: 10/20/1994)

Oct. 19, 1994
119

BRIEF by American Family Mtl in support of motion to exclude evidence [118-1] (bjp, ) (Entered: 10/20/1994)

Oct. 19, 1994
120

CERTIFICATE of mailing by American Family Mtl (bjp, ) (Entered: 10/20/1994)

Oct. 19, 1994
121

AFFIDAVIT/VERIFICATION of Michael J. Aprahamian (bjp, ) (Entered: 10/20/1994)

Oct. 19, 1994
122

LETTER from William H. Lynch to Court dated 10/20/94 (bjp, ) (Entered: 10/21/1994)

Oct. 20, 1994

State / Territory: Wisconsin

Case Type(s):

Fair Housing/Lending/Insurance

Key Dates

Filing Date: July 27, 1990

Closing Date: 2000

Case Ongoing: No

Plaintiffs

Plaintiff Description:

Civil rights organization and eight members challenging redlining as form of racial discrimination in which insurers declined to write insurance or charged higher rates for people in certain areas

Plaintiff Type(s):

U.S. Dept of Justice plaintiff

Private Plaintiff

Attorney Organizations:

U.S. Dept. of Justice Civil Rights Division

NAACP Legal Defense Fund

Public Interest Lawyer: Yes

Filed Pro Se: No

Class Action Sought: Yes

Class Action Outcome: Granted

Defendants

American Family Mutual Insurance Company (Milwaukee), Private Entity/Person

Case Details

Causes of Action:

Fair Housing Act/Fair Housing Amendments Act (FHAA), 42 U.S.C. §§ 3601 et seq.

State law

Availably Documents:

Trial Court Docket

Injunctive (or Injunctive-like) Relief

Any published opinion

Outcome

Prevailing Party: Plaintiff

Nature of Relief:

Injunction / Injunctive-like Settlement

Source of Relief:

Settlement

Litigation

Form of Settlement:

Court Approved Settlement or Consent Decree

Order Duration: 1995 - None

Issues

General:

Funding

Discrimination-area:

Insurance

Discrimination-basis:

Race discrimination

Race:

Black