Case: Santiago v. Philadelphia

2:74-02589 | U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania

Filed Date: Oct. 7, 1974

Clearinghouse coding complete

Case Summary

In October of 1974, juvenile inmates at the Philadelphia Youth Study Center (YSC) filed a class action lawsuit under 42 U.S.C. §§ 1983, 1985(3), 2000d against the City of Philadelphia and local Family Court judges in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania. The plaintiffs, represented by Community Legal Services, Inc. of Philadelphia, and private attorneys, asked the court for declaratory and injunctive relief, and punitive damages for those members of the class that su…

In October of 1974, juvenile inmates at the Philadelphia Youth Study Center (YSC) filed a class action lawsuit under 42 U.S.C. §§ 1983, 1985(3), 2000d against the City of Philadelphia and local Family Court judges in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania. The plaintiffs, represented by Community Legal Services, Inc. of Philadelphia, and private attorneys, asked the court for declaratory and injunctive relief, and punitive damages for those members of the class that suffered injury, alleging that conditions at the YSC violated juveniles' First, Fourth, Fifth, Eighth, Thirteenth, and Fourteenth Amendment rights. Specifically, the plaintiffs contended: use of excessive force, including severe physical beatings and prolonged isolation; overcrowding; physical deterioration of the building coupled with rat and roach infestations; poor heating and ventilation leading to extreme temperatures; restricted movement of inmates due to excessive security measures; no outdoor, and limited indoor recreation; heavily restricted visitation rights; censored and undelivered mail; effective prohibition of phone use; inadequate sanitation and hygiene; inadequate medical, mental and dental health provision; unnecessary pelvic examinations for girls, bordering on sexual abuse; inadequate caloric intake for detainees; no written disciplinary code; forced and coerced labor without pay; no library access; substandard education, with no supervision; no social services provided for females, very limited services for males; inadequate staff-child ratios, and poor staff training; no proper classification for offenders at intake; and practices of racial segregation and discrimination. The alleged practices were also in violation of a direct command within the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, that the YSC immediately cease the use of any corporal punishment or isolation tactics.

In February 1975 a new Board of Managers was appointed to YSC and in September 1975 a new Executive Director was selected. Many changes began to take place at YSC.

On November 24, 1976, the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania (Judge Joseph Simon Lord, III) certified the class as all juveniles who were or would become subject to incarceration at the YSC for declaratory and injunctive relief, but not for damages. Santiago v. City of Philadelphia, 72 F.R.D. 619 (E.D. Penn. 1976). The Court (Judge Lord) also recognized two sub-classes: all non-white juveniles, and all non-adjudicated juveniles within the greater class.

On July 20, 1977, the Court (Judge Lord) denied defendants' motion to dismiss. Santiago v. City of Philadelphia, 435 F. Supp. 136 (E.D. Penn. 1977). The Court determined that plaintiffs had made a prima facie case on all claims except the 42 U.S.C. 2000d racial discrimination claim, because the plaintiffs had not exhausted their administrative remedies.

On November 1, 1977, the parties began collaboration on a Working Agreement.

On October 24, 1978, the parties signed a Stipulation of Settlement addressing all of the allegations from the 1974 lawsuit. However, on December 29, 1978 the Court (Judge Lord) ordered the "Stipulation in Partial Settlement of This Action," which was much more limited in scope. This contained a number of provisions with the primary purposes of: enhancing the mandatory education policy and its implementation on an individual level, taking account of age, education level, and disciplinary status; eliminating corporal punishment within YSC; making sure that the classrooms had adequate supplies and staff for the education of all students; hiring a librarian and maintaining a library; and creating a monitoring scheme. Plaintiffs' counsel had free and open access to all records and admission information. Pennsylvania was to designate an evaluation team to inspect YSC 3 months after the Stipulation went into effect and every 4 months after.

On July 15, 1980 the parties submitted an Amended Stipulation in Partial Settlement to the court. As amended the Stipulation contained several provisions from the initial out-of-court agreement of October 1978. Specifically it required that: requested privacy be allowed, and not construed as isolation; isolation was never to be used as a punishment or for the convenience of the staff, but could be used to protect a resident from the themselves or others; prolonged isolation of up to 4 hours required a doctor's approval; during isolation, detainees must have access to clean, dry, well-lit rooms, dressed beds, hygiene supplies, access to education supplies, medical care, bathrooms, and correspondence; and recreation and creative activity periods were created and enforced. Also there were modifications to the visitation hours.

In February 1983, the YSC Board of Managers was dissolved, and supervision was assumed directly by the City of Philadelphia. Accordingly the parties reevaluated the Stipulation Agreement and reissued it in its entirety with some small changes on December 12, 1984. On January 15, 1985, the Court (Judge Lord) entered the Second Amended Stipulation in Partial Settlement of This Action. The new amendments added more complex protocol for admission and discharge from YSC, to deal with overcrowding.

On January 21, 1988, the Court (Judge Lord) entered the Third Amended Stipulation in Partial Settlement, to go into effect January 31, 1988. In addition to being a comprehensive document containing all provisions binding the parties, it provided for a two-phase population cap, where the YSC would reduce its maximum population to 120 residents by January 31, 1988, and then 105 residents by February 15, 1988. Together with the requirements listed above, the final Stipulation specifically required: handbooks for the residents, which explained proscribed behavior and punishments; grievance procedures; beds for each resident and fresh bedding; adequate heating, air conditioning, and ventilation; freedom of movement for residents; non-bedroom private space for residents; phone access for residents unless abused; access to psychiatric counseling for residents; hygiene products and clean clothes for all residents; meals and health in accordance with law and dietary recommendations; bathrooms cleaned daily; regular supervision to prevent fights; no discrimination based on race, gender, or sexual orientation; and training for all employees.

On January 25, 1988, the Court (Judge Lord) entered an order appointing "Offender Aid and Restoration" as the monitor for the case.

Because PACER has no docket, we have no more information on this file.

Summary Authors

Greg Venker (5/24/2006)

People


Judge(s)

Lord, Joseph Simon III (Pennsylvania)

Attorneys(s) for Plaintiff

Echternach, Kathy L. (Pennsylvania)

Goldberg, Steven S. (Pennsylvania)

Josephson, Ellen (Pennsylvania)

Levick, Marsha (Pennsylvania)

Levine, Jack J. (Pennsylvania)

Palamarchuk, Alexander J. (Pennsylvania)

Schwartz, Robert G. (Pennsylvania)

Stein, Jonathan M. (Pennsylvania)

Stotland, Janet F. (Pennsylvania)

Judge(s)

Lord, Joseph Simon III (Pennsylvania)

Attorneys(s) for Plaintiff

Echternach, Kathy L. (Pennsylvania)

Goldberg, Steven S. (Pennsylvania)

Josephson, Ellen (Pennsylvania)

Levick, Marsha (Pennsylvania)

Levine, Jack J. (Pennsylvania)

Palamarchuk, Alexander J. (Pennsylvania)

Schwartz, Robert G. (Pennsylvania)

Stein, Jonathan M. (Pennsylvania)

Stotland, Janet F. (Pennsylvania)

Vilim, Guy (Pennsylvania)

Waserstein, Aeda (Pennsylvania)

Attorneys(s) for Defendant

Abramson, Howland W. (Pennsylvania)

Albert, Sheldon L. (Pennsylvania)

Alexander, Sadie (Pennsylvania)

Angell, M. Faith (Pennsylvania)

Cammisa, Agostino (Pennsylvania)

Clark, Tama (Pennsylvania)

Gilbert, Alan H. (Pennsylvania)

Gold, Richard J. (Pennsylvania)

Lally, Joseph R. (Pennsylvania)

Langsam, Saul L. (Pennsylvania)

Lear, Robert T. (Pennsylvania)

Marroletti, Alfred (Pennsylvania)

Masciantonio, Dominic M. (Pennsylvania)

Posner, Nathan (Pennsylvania)

Rieser, Leonard (District of Columbia)

Singley, Carl E. (Pennsylvania)

Strain, Joseph F. (Pennsylvania)

Expert/Monitor/Master

Wolf, Robert B. (Pennsylvania)

Documents in the Clearinghouse

Document

2:74-02589

Second Amended Complaint

Dec. 1, 1975

Dec. 1, 1975

Complaint

2:74-02589

Reported Opinion

72 F.R.D. 619

Nov. 24, 1976

Nov. 24, 1976

Order/Opinion

2:74-02589

Opinion

435 F.Supp. 136

July 20, 1977

July 20, 1977

Order/Opinion

2:74-02589

Stipulation of Settlement

Dec. 22, 1978

Dec. 22, 1978

Settlement Agreement

2:74-02589

Stipulation in Partial Settlement of this Action

Dec. 29, 1979

Dec. 29, 1979

Pleading / Motion / Brief

2:74-02589

Amended Stipulation in Partial Settlement of this Action

July 15, 1980

July 15, 1980

Settlement Agreement

2:74-02589

Second Amended Stipulation in Partial Settlement of this Action

Jan. 14, 1985

Jan. 14, 1985

Settlement Agreement

2:74-02589

Third Amended Stipulation in Partial Settlement of this Action

Jan. 11, 1988

Jan. 11, 1988

Settlement Agreement

2:74-02589

Order

Jan. 21, 1988

Jan. 21, 1988

Order/Opinion

2:74-02589

Order Appointing Monitor

Jan. 25, 1988

Jan. 25, 1988

Order/Opinion

Resources

Docket

Last updated July 24, 2022, 3:06 a.m.

Docket sheet not available via the Clearinghouse.

Case Details

State / Territory: Pennsylvania

Case Type(s):

Juvenile Institution

Special Collection(s):

Strip Search Cases

Key Dates

Filing Date: Oct. 7, 1974

Case Ongoing: No reason to think so

Plaintiffs

Plaintiff Description:

All juveniles who were or would become subject to incarceration at the YSC (for declaratory and injunctive relief, no class was certified for damages).

Plaintiff Type(s):

Private Plaintiff

Attorney Organizations:

Legal Services/Legal Aid

Juvenile Law Center

Public Interest Lawyer: Yes

Filed Pro Se: No

Class Action Sought: Yes

Class Action Outcome: Granted

Defendants

Philadelphia Youth Study Center (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania), City

Case Details

Causes of Action:

42 U.S.C. § 1983

Title VI, Civil Rights Act of 1964, 42 U.S.C. § 2000d et seq.

Constitutional Clause(s):

Due Process

Freedom of speech/association

Equal Protection

Cruel and Unusual Punishment

Availably Documents:

Complaint (any)

Any published opinion

Outcome

Prevailing Party: Plaintiff

Nature of Relief:

Injunction / Injunctive-like Settlement

Damages

Source of Relief:

Settlement

Litigation

Form of Settlement:

Court Approved Settlement or Consent Decree

Order Duration: 1978 - None

Issues

General:

Access to lawyers or judicial system

Assault/abuse by residents/inmates/students

Assault/abuse by staff

Bathing and hygiene

Classification / placement

Confinement/isolation

Counseling

Disciplinary procedures

Disciplinary segregation

Education

Excessive force

Fire safety

Food service / nutrition / hydration

Gay/lesbian/transgender

Library (non-law) access

Mail

Personal injury

Phone

Racial segregation

Recreation / Exercise

Restraints : physical

Sanitation / living conditions

Sex w/ staff; sexual harassment by staff

Staff (number, training, qualifications, wages)

Strip search policy

Suicide prevention

Totality of conditions

Visiting

Crowding:

Crowding / caseload

Pre-PLRA Population Cap

Discrimination-basis:

Race discrimination

Sex discrimination

Affected Gender:

Female

Male

Medical/Mental Health:

Dental care

Medical care, general

Medication, administration of

Mental health care, general

Type of Facility:

Government-run