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Case: Grutter v. Bollinger

2:97-cv-75928 | U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan

Filed Date: Dec. 3, 1997

Closed Date: 2004

Clearinghouse coding complete

Case Summary

On Dec. 3, 1997, an applicant to the University of Michigan Law School brought this class action in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan under 42 U.S.C. § 1983 against the University of Michigan Law School. The plaintiff, represented by private counsel, claimed that, in denying her admission, the school discriminated against her on the basis of her race, and violated the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment. She claimed that the school used the race of its appli…

On Dec. 3, 1997, an applicant to the University of Michigan Law School brought this class action in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan under 42 U.S.C. § 1983 against the University of Michigan Law School. The plaintiff, represented by private counsel, claimed that, in denying her admission, the school discriminated against her on the basis of her race, and violated the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment. She claimed that the school used the race of its applicants not merely as a plus factor in determining admission, but as one of the predominant factors. Moreover, she claimed, the school had no compelling interest to justify their use of race in the admissions process, nor did they ever employ any race-neutral alternatives. She sought declaratory and injunctive relief. On Jan. 7, 1999, the Court (Judge Bernard A. Friedman) certified the class.

In March 2001, after a bench trial, Judge Friedman ruled for Grutter and determined that the law school's admissions policy was unconstitutional. By using race to ensure the enrollment of a certain minimum percentage of underrepresented minorities, the court held, the law school had "made the current admissions policy practically indistinguishable from a[n unconstitutional] quota system." 137 F. Supp. 2d 821. The district court also concluded that the achievement of racial diversity is not a compelling state interest.

The law school appealed to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 6th Circuit, which heard the appeal en banc. On May 14, 2002, the court (Chief Judge Boyce F. Martin, Jr. wrote the majority opinion) reversed the district court. The court held (1) that the Supreme Court had established in Bakke that achieving a diverse student body was a compelling interest, and (2) that the school's policy was narrowly tailored to achieve that interest. 288 F.3d 732.

Grutter petitioned for a writ of certiorari from the Supreme Court, which granted it in December 2002. On June 23, 2003, the Court affirmed the 6th Circuit decision, and held that the law school's desire to obtain a "critical mass" of underrepresented minority students counted as a narrowly tailored use of race in its admissions process. Moreover, the Court held, the school's use of race furthered its compelling interest in "obtaining the educational benefits that flow from a diverse student body." Because the law school engaged in a highly individualized, holistic review of each applicant, giving serious consideration to all the ways the applicant might contribute to a diverse educational environment, it ensured that all factors that could contribute to diversity were meaningfully considered alongside race. Its admissions process was not unconstitutional.

The majority opinion (written by Justice Sandra Day O'Connor and joined by Justices Stevens, Souter, Ginsburg, and Breyer) did note that affirmative action should not be allowed to exist forever, but, rather, that at some future date (the opinion mentions 25 years hence), only colorblind policies should be allowed.

Justice Thomas issued an opinion concurring only with the majority opinion's implication of a 25-year window of affirmative-action legitimacy. He dissented from the rest of the opinion, stating that the law school had no compelling interest in maintaining an elite, but racially diverse, campus. If the school wanted to achieve greater diversity, he wrote, it could relax its test score and GPA requirements.

On March 17, 2004, Judge Friedman ordered the case closed.

Summary Authors

Andrew Junker (11/13/2014)

Related Cases

Gratz v. Bollinger, Eastern District of Michigan (1997)

Students for Fair Admissions v. Harvard, District of Massachusetts (2014)

Students for Fair Admissions v. University of North Carolina, Middle District of North Carolina (2014)

People


Judge(s)

Breyer, Stephen Gerald (District of Columbia)

Cole, Ransey Guy Jr. (Ohio)

Daughtrey, Martha Craig (Tennessee)

Friedman, Bernard A. (Michigan)

Ginsburg, Ruth Bader (District of Columbia)

Kennedy, Anthony McLeod (District of Columbia)

Martin, Boyce Ficklen Jr. (Kentucky)

Moore, Karen Nelson (Ohio)

O'Connor, Sandra Day (District of Columbia)

Rehnquist, William Hubbs (District of Columbia)

Judge(s)

Breyer, Stephen Gerald (District of Columbia)

Cole, Ransey Guy Jr. (Ohio)

Daughtrey, Martha Craig (Tennessee)

Friedman, Bernard A. (Michigan)

Ginsburg, Ruth Bader (District of Columbia)

Kennedy, Anthony McLeod (District of Columbia)

Martin, Boyce Ficklen Jr. (Kentucky)

Moore, Karen Nelson (Ohio)

O'Connor, Sandra Day (District of Columbia)

Rehnquist, William Hubbs (District of Columbia)

Scalia, Antonin (District of Columbia)

Souter, David Hackett (District of Columbia)

Stevens, John Paul (District of Columbia)

Thomas, Clarence (District of Columbia)

Attorneys(s) for Plaintiff

Bader, Hans F. (District of Columbia)

Herr, David F. (Minnesota)

Kolbo, Kirk O. (Minnesota)

McDonald, Michael P. (District of Columbia)

Morgan, Kerry L. (Michigan)

Rosman, Michael E. (District of Columbia)

Wright, Patrick J. (Michigan)

Attorneys(s) for Defendant

Delery, Stuart F. (District of Columbia)

D'Orio, Lynn B. (Michigan)

Kessler, Philip J. (Michigan)

Niehoff, Leonard M. (Michigan)

Payton, John A. (District of Columbia)

Pickering, John H. (District of Columbia)

Sherburne, Jane (District of Columbia)

Other Attorney(s)

Dreier, Alexander E. (District of Columbia)

Foley, Edward B. (Ohio)

Glassman, Jeremiah (District of Columbia)

Granholm, Jennifer M. (Michigan)

Johnson, Kenneth D. (District of Columbia)

Leffler, Susan I. (Michigan)

Massie, Miranda K.S. (Michigan)

Michaelson, Martin (District of Columbia)

Routh, Steven J. (District of Columbia)

Wilhelm, Richard A. (Michigan)

Woodruff, Kathryn (District of Columbia)

Documents in the Clearinghouse

Document

2:97-cv-75928

CIVIL DOCKET FOR CASE #: 2:97−cv−75928−BAF

March 17, 2004

March 17, 2004

Docket
1

2:97-cv-75928

Complaint

Dec. 3, 1997

Dec. 3, 1997

Complaint
42

2:97-cv-75928

Opinion and Order Denying Defendants' Motion for an Order Designating Actions as Companion Cases

Aug. 17, 1998

Aug. 17, 1998

Order/Opinion

98-02009

Opinion

U. S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit

Aug. 10, 1999

Aug. 10, 1999

Order/Opinion
167

2:97-cv-75928

Opinion and Order Denying Defendants' Motion for Relief from Order Regarding Class Certification and Bifurcation in Light of Subsequent Authority

April 19, 2000

April 19, 2000

Order/Opinion
166

2:97-cv-75928

Order Requiring the Production of Student Files

April 19, 2000

April 19, 2000

Order/Opinion
216

2:97-cv-75928

Defendants' Motion for Summary Judgment

Oct. 10, 2000

Oct. 10, 2000

Pleading / Motion / Brief
246

2:97-cv-75928

Brief of the Attorney General as Amicus Curiae

Nov. 29, 2000

Nov. 29, 2000

Pleading / Motion / Brief
268

2:97-cv-75928

Order

Dec. 28, 2000

Dec. 28, 2000

Order/Opinion
311

2:97-cv-75928

Opinion

March 27, 2001

March 27, 2001

Order/Opinion

Resources

Docket

Last updated Sept. 3, 2022, 3:03 a.m.

ECF Number Description Date Link Date / Link
1

COMPLAINT − Receipt # 353648 − Date Fee Received: 12/3/97 (db) (Entered: 12/05/1997)

Dec. 3, 1997

Dec. 3, 1997

2

SUMMONS returned executed by personal service on 12/3/97 − answer due 12/23/97 for Lee Bollinger (db) (Entered: 12/05/1997)

Dec. 3, 1997

Dec. 3, 1997

3

SUMMONS returned executed by personal service on 12/3/97 − answer due 12/23/97 for Dennis Shields (db) (Entered: 12/05/1997)

Dec. 3, 1997

Dec. 3, 1997

4

SUMMONS returned executed by personal service on 12/3/97 − answer due 12/23/97 for Univ MI (db) (Entered: 12/05/1997)

Dec. 3, 1997

Dec. 3, 1997

5

SUMMONS returned executed by personal service on 12/3/97 − answer due 12/23/97 for Univ MI Law School (db) (Entered: 12/05/1997)

Dec. 3, 1997

Dec. 3, 1997

6

SUMMONS returned executed by personal service on 12/3/97 − answer due 12/23/97 for Jeffrey Lehman (db) (Entered: 12/05/1997)

Dec. 3, 1997

Dec. 3, 1997

7

APPEARANCE for defendants of attorney John A. Payton and Jane Sherburne with proof of mailing (ew) (Entered: 12/11/1997)

Dec. 9, 1997

Dec. 9, 1997

8

ANSWER by defendants to complaint [1−1] with proof of mailing (lh) (Entered: 12/30/1997)

Dec. 22, 1997

Dec. 22, 1997

8

AFFIRMATIVE defenses by defendants with proof of mailing (lh) (Entered: 12/30/1997)

Dec. 22, 1997

Dec. 22, 1997

9

DEMAND by plaintiff Barbara Grutter for jury trial with proof of mailing (ls) (Entered: 01/09/1998)

Jan. 8, 1998

Jan. 8, 1998

10

NOTICE by the court of scheduling conference (ls) (Entered: 02/05/1998)

Feb. 4, 1998

Feb. 4, 1998

SCHEDULE: by Judge Bernard A. Friedman scheduling conference set for 10:00 2/19/98 (cd) (Entered: 02/04/1998)

Feb. 4, 1998

Feb. 4, 1998

SCHEDULING conference held − Judge Bernard A. Friedman (cd) (Entered: 02/20/1998)

Feb. 19, 1998

Feb. 19, 1998

11

MOTION by Kimberly James to file brief in excess of 20 pages with brief (PP) Modified on 05/27/1999 (Entered: 03/30/1998)

March 27, 1998

March 27, 1998

12

ORDER by Judge Bernard A. Friedman granting motion to file brief in excess of 20 pages by Kimberly James [11−1], with proof of mailing (PP) Modified on 05/27/1999 (Entered: 03/30/1998)

March 27, 1998

March 27, 1998

13

MOTION by Kimberly James to intervene as party defendant with brief, exhibits, notice of hearing and proof of mailing(PP) Modified on 05/27/1999 (Entered: 03/30/1998)

March 27, 1998

March 27, 1998

15

PRETRIAL scheduling order by Judge Bernard A. Friedman − deadline for witness list set for 10/1/98 , deadline for discovery set for 12/15/98 , deadline for filing motions set for 2/26/98 , final pretrial conference set for 2:00 6/16/99 , civil jury trial set for 9:00 6/22/99 (lh) (Entered: 04/10/1998)

April 9, 1998

April 9, 1998

SCHEDULING conference held − Judge Bernard A. Friedman (cd) (Entered: 04/14/1998)

April 9, 1998

April 9, 1998

16

RESPONSE by plaintiff Barbara Grutter to motion to intervene as party defendant [13−1] (lh) Modified on 05/27/1999 (Entered: 04/23/1998)

April 22, 1998

April 22, 1998

18

RESPONSE by Dennis Shields, Jeffrey Lehman and Lee Bollinger to motion to intervene as party defendant [13−1] with proof of mailing (lt) Modified on 05/27/1999 (Entered: 04/27/1998)

April 23, 1998

April 23, 1998

17

PROOF of mailing of response to motion [16−1] (lt) Modified on 05/27/1999 (Entered: 04/27/1998)

April 24, 1998

April 24, 1998

19

NOTICE of substitution of attorney Kerry L. Morgan in place of attorney Patrick J. Wright for Barbara Grutter (lt) Modified on 05/27/1999 (Entered: 04/30/1998)

April 29, 1998

April 29, 1998

20

EXPARTE motion by movants to file a reply brief in excess of (5) pages with brief (ld) Modified on 05/27/1999 (Entered: 05/06/1998)

May 4, 1998

May 4, 1998

21

ORDER by Judge Bernard A. Friedman granting motion to file a reply brief in excess of (5) pages by movants [20−1] (bk) Modified on 05/27/1999 (Entered: 05/19/1998)

May 18, 1998

May 18, 1998

22

REPLY by movants to response to motion to intervene as party defendant [13−1] with proof of mailing (pd) (Entered: 05/27/1999)

May 18, 1998

May 18, 1998

23

PROTECTIVE order by Judge Bernard A. Friedman with stipulation regarding confidentiality (ls) Modified on 05/27/1999 (Entered: 05/29/1998)

May 28, 1998

May 28, 1998

24

MEMORANDUM opinion and order by Judge Bernard A. Friedman denying motion to intervene as party defendants by Kimberly James [13−1] (DT) Modified on 05/27/1999 (Entered: 07/07/1998)

July 6, 1998

July 6, 1998

25

NOTICE by plaintiff Barbara Grutter of taking deposition of Erica Munzel 6/1/98 @ 9:00 am with proof of mailing (lh) Modified on 05/27/1999 (Entered: 07/13/1998)

July 10, 1998

July 10, 1998

26

MOTION by Lee Bollinger, James J Duderstadt, Jeffrey Lehman, Dennis Shields and Regents of the Univ MI for reassignment or alternatively for designating actions as companion cases with brief and proof of mailing (lh) Modified on 05/27/1999 (Entered: 07/15/1998)

July 15, 1998

July 15, 1998

27

MOTION by Kimberly James for reconsideration of order [24−1] with brief and proof of mailing (ld) Modified on 05/27/1999 (Entered: 07/21/1998)

July 20, 1998

July 20, 1998

28

NOTICE by defendants of taking deposition of Jean Wong on 7/21/98 at 9:00am with proof of mailing (ld) (Entered: 07/21/1998)

July 20, 1998

July 20, 1998

29

RESPONSE by plaintiff Barbara Grutter to motion for reassignment [26−1] and for designating actions as companion cases [26−2] with affidavit and attachments (pd) (Entered: 05/27/1999)

July 23, 1998

July 23, 1998

30

ORDER by Judge Anna Diggs Taylor assigning motion for reassignment [26−1] to Judges John Feikens and Julian Able Cook, Jr. with proof of mailing (PP) Modified on 05/27/1999 (Entered: 07/28/1998)

July 23, 1998

July 23, 1998

REPLY by defendants Univ MI, Univ MI College Lit and James T. Duderstadt to response to motion for reassignment [26−1] and for designating actions as companion cases [26−2] with proof of mailing (pd) Modified on 05/27/1999 (Entered: 05/27/1999)

July 29, 1998

July 29, 1998

31

MOTION by plaintiff to certify class and for bifurcation of liability and damage trials with brief, affidavit and proof of mailing (PP) Modified on 05/27/1999 (Entered: 08/04/1998)

July 31, 1998

July 31, 1998

32

TRANSCRIPT taken on 7/31/98 of motion hearing (lh) Modified on 05/27/1999 (Entered: 08/04/1998)

Aug. 4, 1998

Aug. 4, 1998

33

NOTICE scheduling hearing on motion to certify class and for bifurcation of liability and damage trials by Barbara Grutter [31−1] and requiring the filing of a response (lh) Modified on 05/27/1999 (Entered: 08/05/1998)

Aug. 4, 1998

Aug. 4, 1998

SCHEDULE: by Judge Bernard A. Friedman hearing on motion to certify class and for bifurcation of liability and damage trials by Barbara Grutter [31−1] set for 2:00 9/24/98 (cd) (Entered: 08/07/1998)

Aug. 4, 1998

Aug. 4, 1998

34

LETTER by counsel for plaintiff regarding submission of a formal legal brief in response to intervenors' motion for reconsideration of order [27−1] (ew) Modified on 05/27/1999 (Entered: 08/06/1998)

Aug. 6, 1998

Aug. 6, 1998

35

MEMORANDUM opinion and order by Judges John Feikens and Julian Abele Cook, Jr. concluding that Grutter and Gratz are COMPANION cases under provisions of 83.11(b)(7) [26−1] with proof of mailing (STRIKEN FROM THE DOCKET 8/17/98 − SEE DOCUMENT [42−1] (ew) Modified on 05/27/1999 (Entered: 08/07/1998)

Aug. 6, 1998

Aug. 6, 1998

36

MEMORANDUM opinion and order by Judge Bernard A. Friedman denying motion for reconsideration of order [27−1] (DT) Modified on 05/27/1999 (Entered: 08/10/1998)

Aug. 7, 1998

Aug. 7, 1998

37

LETTER by Kirk O. Kolbo to Judge Friedman regarding reassignment of cases (DT) Modified on 05/27/1999 (Entered: 08/10/1998)

Aug. 10, 1998

Aug. 10, 1998

38

NOTICE of taking deposition of Don Herzog on August 28,1998 at 9:00 a.m. (ls) (Entered: 08/17/1998)

Aug. 14, 1998

Aug. 14, 1998

39

NOTICE of taking deposition of Don Regan on August 27, 1998 at 9:00 a.m. (ls) (Entered: 08/17/1998)

Aug. 14, 1998

Aug. 14, 1998

40

NOTICE of taking deposition of Thomas Kauper on August 28, 1998 at 9:00 a.m. (ls) (Entered: 08/17/1998)

Aug. 14, 1998

Aug. 14, 1998

41

PROOF of mailing of notices of taking deposition (ls) Modified on 05/27/1999 (Entered: 08/17/1998)

Aug. 14, 1998

Aug. 14, 1998

42

MEMORANDUM opinion and order by Judge Bernard A. Friedman striking from the docket the 8/8/98 opinion by Judges Feikens and Cook [35−1] denying motion for designating as companion cases by Univ MI, Dennis Shields, Jeffrey Lehman, Lee Bollinger [26−2] with proof of mailing (ls) Modified on 05/27/1999 (Entered: 08/19/1998)

Aug. 17, 1998

Aug. 17, 1998

43

NOTICE by plaintiff of taking deposition of Mr. Thomas Kauper 9:00 on 9/3/98 with proof of mailing (ew) (Entered: 08/24/1998)

Aug. 21, 1998

Aug. 21, 1998

44

ORDER by Judge Bernard A. Friedman with stipulation, amending hearing date on motion for class certification and for bifurcation of liability and damage trials by Barbara Grutter [33−1] (bk) Modified on 05/27/1999 (Entered: 09/01/1998)

Aug. 31, 1998

Aug. 31, 1998

45

APPEAL by intervening defendants of order [36−1] to USCA − FEE: PAID − Receipt #: 367214 (do) Modified on 05/27/1999 (Entered: 09/04/1998)

Aug. 31, 1998

Aug. 31, 1998

46

PROOF of mailing of notice of appeal to USCA, Kerry Morgan, John Payton, Leonard Niehoff, Jane Sherburne, Miranda Massie and Mary Vozniak (do) (Entered: 09/04/1998)

Sept. 4, 1998

Sept. 4, 1998

48

EXPARTE motion by defendants Univ MI Law School, Univ MI, Dennis Shields, Jeffrey Lehman and Lee Bollinger to file brief in excess of 20 pages with brief (PP) Modified on 05/27/1999 (Entered: 09/14/1998)

Sept. 10, 1998

Sept. 10, 1998

49

NOTICE by plaintiff of taking deposition of Law School Admission Council, Inc 10/6/98 at 9:00 a.m. with exhibit A, and proof of mailing. (PP) (Entered: 09/14/1998)

Sept. 11, 1998

Sept. 11, 1998

50

ORDER by Judge Bernard A. Friedman granting motion to file brief in excess of 20 pages by Lee Bollinger, Jeffrey Lehman, Dennis Shields, Univ MI and Univ MI Law School [48−1] (RH) Modified on 05/27/1999 (Entered: 09/16/1998)

Sept. 15, 1998

Sept. 15, 1998

51

RESPONSE by defendants to motion to certify class and for bifurcation of liability and damage trials [31−1] with exhibits A−F (pd) (Entered: 05/27/1999)

Sept. 15, 1998

Sept. 15, 1998

52

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT from USCA of receipt of appeal notice and docket [47−1][45−1] − appeal case # 98−2009 (DT) (Entered: 09/22/1998)

Sept. 21, 1998

Sept. 21, 1998

53

ORDER by Judge Bernard A. Friedman with stipulation amending briefing schedule (DT) (Entered: 09/23/1998)

Sept. 22, 1998

Sept. 22, 1998

54

RECORD of appeal notice by intervening defendants [45−1] consisting of: 2 volumes of pleadings; 1 transcript and 0 depositions transmitted to USCA − appeal case # 98−2009 (DT) Modified on 05/27/1999 (Entered: 09/24/1998)

Sept. 24, 1998

Sept. 24, 1998

55

ORDER by Judge Bernard A. Friedman and exparte motion for leave to file a reply in excess of 5 pages (lh) Modified on 05/27/1999 (Entered: 09/30/1998)

Sept. 28, 1998

Sept. 28, 1998

56

REPLY by plaintiff Barbara Grutter to defendants response to motion to certify class and for bifurcation of liability and damage trials [31−1] with exhibits and proof of mailing (lh) Modified on 05/27/1999 (Entered: 09/30/1998)

Sept. 28, 1998

Sept. 28, 1998

57

WITNESS list by plaintiff Barbara Grutter (lh) (Entered: 10/02/1998)

Oct. 1, 1998

Oct. 1, 1998

58

TRANSCRIPT order form filed by counsel for intervenor defendants regarding appeal [45−1] requesting transcript: (no hearings) − appeal case # 98−2009 (lh) Modified on 05/27/1999 (Entered: 10/02/1998)

Oct. 1, 1998

Oct. 1, 1998

59

REQUEST by plaintiff and defendants for modification of scheduling order (RH) Modified on 05/27/1999 (Entered: 10/05/1998)

Oct. 1, 1998

Oct. 1, 1998

60

WITNESS list by defendants with proof of mailing (ew) Modified on 05/27/1999 (Entered: 10/06/1998)

Oct. 2, 1998

Oct. 2, 1998

61

PROOF of mailing of [60−1] (ew) Modified on 05/27/1999 (Entered: 10/06/1998)

Oct. 5, 1998

Oct. 5, 1998

62

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT from USCA of receipt of appeal notice by intervening defendants [45−1] − appeal case # 98−2009 (ls) Modified on 05/27/1999 (Entered: 10/14/1998)

Oct. 9, 1998

Oct. 9, 1998

63

PRETRIAL scheduling order (amended) by Judge Bernard A. Friedman − deadline for witness list set for 12/15/98 , deadline for discovery set for 2/15/99 , deadline for filing motions set for 4/1/99 , final pretrial conference set for 2:00 on 6/16/99 , civil jury trial set for 9:00 on 6/22/99 (ls) Modified on 05/27/1999 (Entered: 10/19/1998)

Oct. 14, 1998

Oct. 14, 1998

MOTION hearing held on motion to certify class and for bifurcation of liability and damage trials by Barbara Grutter [31−1] − disposition: taken under advisement − Judge Bernard A. Friedman − Court Reporter: Joan Morgan (cd) (Entered: 10/23/1998)

Oct. 22, 1998

Oct. 22, 1998

64

NOTICE by plaintiff Barbara Grutter of taking deposition of the Regents of the Univ of MI and the Unive of MI Law School on 10/29/98 at 1:00 pm with attachments (DT) (Entered: 10/27/1998)

Oct. 26, 1998

Oct. 26, 1998

65

NOTICE by plaintiff Barbara Grutter of taking deposition of Allan Stillwagon on 11/6/98 (DT) (Entered: 10/27/1998)

Oct. 26, 1998

Oct. 26, 1998

67

PROOF of mailing by plaintiff Barbara Grutter of notices of taking depositions (DT) Modified on 05/27/1999 (Entered: 10/27/1998)

Oct. 26, 1998

Oct. 26, 1998

68

NOTICE by plaintiff Barbara Grutter of taking deposition of Alissa Leonard on 11/2/98 at 10:30 am (DT) (Entered: 10/30/1998)

Oct. 29, 1998

Oct. 29, 1998

69

PROOF of mailing by plaintiff Barbara Grutter of subpoena duces tecum (DT) Modified on 05/27/1999 (Entered: 10/30/1998)

Oct. 29, 1998

Oct. 29, 1998

70

NOTICE by plaintiff of taking deposition of Richard O. Lempert 11/5/98 at 10:00 a.m. with proof of mailing. (PP) (Entered: 11/10/1998)

Nov. 9, 1998

Nov. 9, 1998

71

SUPPLEMENTAL brief by defendants to motion response [51−1], with attachments A−C and proof of mailing (PP) Modified on 05/27/1999 (Entered: 11/12/1998)

Nov. 12, 1998

Nov. 12, 1998

72

ORDER by Judge Bernard A. Friedman and exparte motion for leave to file supplemental memorandum (PP) Modified on 05/27/1999 (Entered: 12/04/1998)

Dec. 3, 1998

Dec. 3, 1998

73

SUPPLEMENTAL brief on class certification by plaintiff (PP) (Entered: 12/04/1998)

Dec. 3, 1998

Dec. 3, 1998

74

NOTICE by defendants of taking deposition of Dennis Shields 12/7/98 at 9:00 (RH) Modified on 05/27/1999 (Entered: 12/07/1998)

Dec. 4, 1998

Dec. 4, 1998

75

SUPPLEMENTAL brief (second) by defendants Univ MI Law School, Univ MI, Dennis Shields, Jeffrey Lehman, and Lee Bollinger in opposition to motion to certify class by Barbara Grutter [31−1] with exhibit and proof of mailing (bk) Modified on 05/27/1999 (Entered: 12/08/1998)

Dec. 4, 1998

Dec. 4, 1998

76

WITNESS list by plaintiff Barbara Grutter, with proof of service (RH) (Entered: 12/16/1998)

Dec. 16, 1998

Dec. 16, 1998

77

SUPPLEMENTAL record of appeal notice by intervening defendants [45−1] consisting of: 1 volume(s) of pleadings 0 transcript(s) 0 deposition(s) sent to USCA − appeal case # 98−2009 (pleadings 54−76) (RH) Modified on 05/27/1999 (Entered: 12/29/1998)

Dec. 29, 1998

Dec. 29, 1998

78

NOTICE by plaintiff Barbara Grutter of taking deposition of Jeffrey Lehman @ 9:00am on 01/20/99; NSI with proof of service (bk) (Entered: 01/07/1999)

Jan. 7, 1999

Jan. 7, 1999

79

MEMORANDUM opinion and order by Judge Bernard A. Friedman granting motion to certify class and for bifurcation of liability damage trials by Barbara Grutter [31−1] (bk) Modified on 05/27/1999 (Entered: 01/08/1999)

Jan. 7, 1999

Jan. 7, 1999

80

NOTICE (amended) by plaintiff of taking deposition of Jeffrey Lehman 1/21/99 at 9:00 a.m. with proof of mailing (PP) Modified on 05/27/1999 (Entered: 01/14/1999)

Jan. 14, 1999

Jan. 14, 1999

81

NOTICE by plaintiff Barbara Grutter of taking deposition of Derek Bok 01/28/99 @ 9:00 with proof of mailing (bk) Modified on 05/27/1999 (Entered: 01/26/1999)

Jan. 25, 1999

Jan. 25, 1999

82

NOTICE by plaintiff Barbara Grutter of taking deposition of Theodore M. Shaw @10:00am on 02/03/99 with proof of mailing(bk) Modified on 05/27/1999 (Entered: 01/29/1999)

Jan. 28, 1999

Jan. 28, 1999

83

WITNESS list by plaintiff Barbara Grutter with proof of mailing (bk) Modified on 05/27/1999 (Entered: 01/29/1999)

Jan. 28, 1999

Jan. 28, 1999

84

NOTICE by plaintiff Barbara Grutter of taking deposition of Lee Bollinger 2/9/99 at 9:00 with proof of mailing (RH) Modified on 05/27/1999 (Entered: 02/03/1999)

Feb. 1, 1999

Feb. 1, 1999

85

NOTICE by plaintiff Barbara Grutter of taking deposition of Patricia U. Gurin 2/12/99 at 9:00 with proof of mailing (RH) Modified on 05/27/1999 (Entered: 02/03/1999)

Feb. 1, 1999

Feb. 1, 1999

87

NOTICE by plaintiff of taking deposition of Olivia Birdsall on 2/11/99 at 2:00 pm with proof of mailing (DT) (Entered: 02/16/1999)

Feb. 11, 1999

Feb. 11, 1999

88

NOTICE by plaintiff Barbara Grutter of taking deposition of Edward Cooper at 11:00 am on 2/17/99 with proof of mailing (DT) (Entered: 02/18/1999)

Feb. 17, 1999

Feb. 17, 1999

STATUS conference held − Judge Bernard A. Friedman (cd) (Entered: 02/19/1999)

Feb. 17, 1999

Feb. 17, 1999

89

PRETRIAL scheduling order (amended) by Judge Bernard A. Friedman − setting deadline for discovery for 3/12/99 , setting deadline for filing motions for 5/3/99 , setting final pretrial conference for 3:00 8/23/99 , setting civil jury trial for 9:00 8/30/99 (DT) Modified on 05/27/1999 (Entered: 02/19/1999)

Feb. 18, 1999

Feb. 18, 1999

90

MOTION by defendants Lee Bollinger, Jeffrey Lehman, Dennis Shields, Univ MI and Univ MI Law School to amend case caption to provide that the proper defendants are named with proof of mailing (lt) Modified on 05/27/1999 (Entered: 04/06/1999)

April 2, 1999

April 2, 1999

91

ORDER by Judge Bernard A. Friedman granting motion to amend case caption to provide that the proper defendants are named by Univ MI Law School, Univ MI, Dennis Shields, Jeffrey Lehman, Lee Bollinger [90−1] (lt) Modified on 05/27/1999 (Entered: 04/06/1999)

April 2, 1999

April 2, 1999

92

MOTION by plaintiff to compel certain application files with brief and affidavit (ls) (Entered: 05/04/1999)

May 3, 1999

May 3, 1999

93

ORDER by Judge Bernard A. Friedman with ex parte motion, for leave to file a brief in excess of the 20 page limit (ls) (Entered: 05/04/1999)

May 3, 1999

May 3, 1999

94

MOTION by plaintiff for partial summary judgment on liability with brief (ls) (Entered: 05/04/1999)

May 3, 1999

May 3, 1999

95

AFFIDAVIT by Kirk O. Kolbo in support of motion for partial summary judgment on liability by Barbara Grutter [94−1] (ls) (Entered: 05/04/1999)

May 3, 1999

May 3, 1999

95

EXHIBITS filed by plaintiff in support of its motion for partial summary judgment on liability (ls) (Entered: 05/04/1999)

May 3, 1999

May 3, 1999

Case Details

State / Territory: Michigan

Case Type(s):

School Desegregation

Special Collection(s):

Multi-LexSum (in sample)

Key Dates

Filing Date: Dec. 3, 1997

Closing Date: 2004

Case Ongoing: No

Plaintiffs

Plaintiff Description:

an applicant to the University of Michigan Law School

Plaintiff Type(s):

Private Plaintiff

Public Interest Lawyer: No

Filed Pro Se: No

Class Action Sought: Yes

Class Action Outcome: Granted

Defendants

University of Michigan Law School, State

Defendant Type(s):

College/University

Case Details

Causes of Action:

42 U.S.C. § 1983

Constitutional Clause(s):

Equal Protection

Availably Documents:

Trial Court Docket

Complaint (any)

Injunctive (or Injunctive-like) Relief

Any published opinion

U.S. Supreme Court merits opinion

Outcome

Prevailing Party: Defendant

Nature of Relief:

None

Source of Relief:

None

Issues

General:

Education

School/University policies

Discrimination-basis:

Race discrimination

Race:

White

Type of Facility:

Government-run