Case: James Madison Project (Daily Beast) v. U.S. Department of Justice

1:17-cv-00390 | U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia

Filed Date: March 3, 2017

Case Ongoing

Clearinghouse coding complete

Case Summary

On Mar. 3, 2017, plaintiffs The James Madison Project and Noah Shachtman sued the defendant agencies under the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA). The James Madison Project (JMP) is an organization established "to promote government accountability of reduction of secrecy, as well as [to educate] the public on issues relating to intelligence and national security." Noah Shachtman is the current Editor-in-Chief (Executive Editor at the start of this lawsuit) of news website The Daily Beast. Plaint…

On Mar. 3, 2017, plaintiffs The James Madison Project and Noah Shachtman sued the defendant agencies under the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA). The James Madison Project (JMP) is an organization established "to promote government accountability of reduction of secrecy, as well as [to educate] the public on issues relating to intelligence and national security." Noah Shachtman is the current Editor-in-Chief (Executive Editor at the start of this lawsuit) of news website The Daily Beast.

Plaintiffs sought disclosure of agency records by the Department of Justice (DOJ) and Department of Homeland Security (DHS), as well as by DHS's subordinate entities: the Transportation Security Administration (TSA), Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), and U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS). Specifically, plaintiffs sought the disclosure of records that would shed light on the degree to which (if at all) the defendant federal agencies were consulted prior and subsequent to the implementation of President Trump's Jan. 27 Executive Order 13769 (EO).

The complaint alleged that on Jan. 31, 2017, plaintiffs submitted a FOIA request to the defendant federal agencies seeking copies of records that memorialize the following:

1. Discussions between defendant agency staff and private/White House staff regarding the legality and implementation of an EO barring entry of foreign nationals based strictly on nationality;

2. Discussions between defendant agency staff and other federal agency staff regarding such an EO;

3. Discussions among defendant agency staff regarding such an EO;

4. Discussions between defendant agency staff and Members of Congress regarding such an EO;

5. Final determinations by defendant agency staff regarding the extent to which such an EO would apply to U.S. citizens with dual citizenship; and

6. Final determinations by defendant agency staff regarding the legality of such an EO.

The complaint further alleged that, to date, plaintiffs had not received a substantive response from any of the defendant agencies, and that plaintiffs had constructively exhausted all required administrative remedies. Plaintiffs sought a disclosure order under FOIA, legal fees, and expedited action.

(That same day, the James Madison Project and staff of Politico also filed another FOIA lawsuit seeking intra- and inter-agency communications relating to communications between DHS's agencies and airlines. That lawsuit is described here.)

On Mar. 3, the case was assigned to Judge Colleen Kollar-Kotelly.

On Mar. 6, 2017, the President rescinded the Jan. 27 EO and replaced it with a narrower one, Executive Order 13780.

On May 8, plaintiffs requested leave to file the first amended complaint. The amended complaint alleged that, on Mar. 24, 2017, plaintiffs submitted a FOIA request to the defendant agencies seeking the same information that they sought in the original Jan. 31 FOIA request, but clarified that the scope of information should encompass both EOs. Plaintiffs specifically asked that the defendant agencies use, but not limit themselves to, the search terms "religious test," "Christian ban," "Jewish ban," and "Muslim ban." Plaintiffs further alleged that, to date, they had not received a substantive response from any of the defendant agencies. Plaintiffs sought a disclosure order under FOIA, legal fees, and expedited action.

On Jun. 16, the parties filed a joint status report noting that all defendant agencies had received and were processing plaintiffs' FOIA requests. The TSA had completed its processing of the request; the parties were not able to provide estimated release dates for the rest of the agencies. On Jul. 21, the parties filed a joint status report indicating that the government had initiated searches for the requested documents, that some responsive materials had already been produced, and that the parties were conferring regarding the remaining documents. On Sept. 5, the parties filed another status report indicating that the government continued to make progress on its searches, and that the parties conferred about the scope of the plaintiffs' request.

On Jan. 19, 2018, the status report noted that DHS was processing approximately 600 potentially responsive records, and 600 others which it would review for responsiveness. The status report of Mar. 20 noted that ICE and USCIS would aim to complete production in the next month, whereas CBP, DHS, and DOJ had longer timeframes to complete production and would continue with monthly releases. Status reports filed in May through November indicated that the agencies were each in various stages of completing the production.

ICE and USCIS had completed production by the Jan. 2019 status report, while TSA had completed its production according to the July 2019 status report. All other agencies are currently in varying stages of production, with status reports due every 60 days.

Though the documents released by the government are not available online, this news article references some of their contents.

The case is ongoing as of June 6, 2020.

Summary Authors

Julie Aust (11/24/2017)

Ava Morgenstern (4/21/2018)

Virginia Weeks (12/1/2018)

Averyn Lee (6/6/2020)

Related Cases

James Madison Project (Daily Beast) v. U.S. Department of Homeland Security, District of Columbia (2017)

People

For PACER's information on parties and their attorneys, see: https://www.courtlistener.com/docket/4613605/parties/james-madison-project-v-department-of-justice/


Judge(s)

Kollar-Kotelly, Colleen (District of Columbia)

Attorneys(s) for Plaintiff

Moss, Bradley Prescott (District of Columbia)

Zaid, Mark S. (District of Columbia)

Attorneys(s) for Defendant

Andrapalliyal, Vinita (District of Columbia)

Berns, Matthew (District of Columbia)

Hunt, Joseph H. (District of Columbia)

Readler, Chad Andrew (District of Columbia)

Shapiro, Elizabeth J. (District of Columbia)

Judge(s)

Kollar-Kotelly, Colleen (District of Columbia)

Attorneys(s) for Plaintiff

Moss, Bradley Prescott (District of Columbia)

Zaid, Mark S. (District of Columbia)

Attorneys(s) for Defendant

Andrapalliyal, Vinita (District of Columbia)

Berns, Matthew (District of Columbia)

Hunt, Joseph H. (District of Columbia)

Readler, Chad Andrew (District of Columbia)

Shapiro, Elizabeth J. (District of Columbia)

Documents in the Clearinghouse

Document

Docket [PACER]

James Madison Project v. Department of Justice

April 7, 2020 Docket
1

Complaint

James Madison Project v. Department of Justice

March 3, 2017 Complaint
3

Order Establishing Procedures

James Madison Project v. Department of Justice

March 6, 2017 Order/Opinion
6

Plaintiffs' Motion for Leave to File First Amended Complaint

The James Madison Project v. Department of Justice

May 8, 2017 Pleading / Motion / Brief
5-1, 5-2, 5-3, 5-4, 5-5

FOIA Requests from James Madison Project

The James Madison Project v. Department of Justice

May 12, 2017 FOIA Request
8

Answer [from Defendant Regarding Amended Complaint]

James Madison Project (Daily Beast) v. DOJ

May 24, 2017 Pleading / Motion / Brief
11

Joint Status Report

The James Madison Project v. Department of Justice

June 16, 2017 Other
12

Joint Status Report

July 21, 2017 Pleading / Motion / Brief
13

Joint Status Report

Sept. 5, 2017 Pleading / Motion / Brief
14

Joint Status Report

Nov. 6, 2017 Pleading / Motion / Brief

Resources

Title Description External URL

Trump’s DHS Ordered Agents to Block Congressmen During Travel Ban

Woodruff, Betsy

On the chaotic day the Trump administration’s travel ban went into effect, high-level Homeland Security officials directed their staff at airports around the country to stiff-arm members of Congress … Aug. 2, 2017 https://www.thedailybeast.com/border-patrol-ordered-to-block-congressmen-during-travel-ban

Trump’s DHS Ordered Agents to Block Congressmen During Travel Ban [The Daily Beast]

Woodruff, Betsy

On the chaotic day the Trump administration’s travel ban went into effect, high-level Homeland Security officials directed their staff at airports around the country to stiff-arm members of Congress … Aug. 2, 2017 https://www.thedailybeast.com/border-patrol-ordered-to-block-congressmen-during-travel-ban

Docket

See docket on RECAP: https://www.courtlistener.com/docket/4613605/james-madison-project-v-department-of-justice/

Last updated May 12, 2022

ECF Number Description Date Link
1

COMPLAINT against DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ( Filing fee $ 400 receipt number 0090-4863750) filed by THE JAMES MADISON PROJECT, NOAH SHACHTMAN. (Attachments: # 1 Exhibit Rule 7.1 certification, # 2 Civil Cover Sheet, # 3 Summons DHS, # 4 Summons DOJ, # 5 Summons USADC, # 6 Summons USAG)(Moss, Bradley) (Entered: 03/03/2017)

1 Exhibit Rule 7.1 certification

View on PACER

2 Civil Cover Sheet

View on PACER

3 Summons DHS

View on PACER

4 Summons DOJ

View on PACER

5 Summons USADC

View on PACER

6 Summons USAG

View on PACER

March 3, 2017 RECAP

Case Assigned to Judge Colleen Kollar-Kotelly. (zsb)

March 3, 2017 PACER
2

SUMMONS (4) Issued Electronically as to DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE, U.S. Attorney and U.S. Attorney General (Attachment: # 1 Consent Form)(zsb) (Entered: 03/03/2017)

March 3, 2017 PACER
3

ORDER Establishing Procedures for Cases Assigned to Judge Colleen Kollar-Kotelly. Signed by Judge Colleen Kollar-Kotelly on March 6, 2017. (NS) (Entered: 03/06/2017)

March 6, 2017 PACER
4

NOTICE of Appearance by Matthew Joseph Berns on behalf of DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (Berns, Matthew) (Entered: 03/23/2017)

March 23, 2017 PACER
5

Consent MOTION for Extension of Time to File Answer re 1 Complaint, by DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (Attachments: # 1 Text of Proposed Order)(Berns, Matthew) (Entered: 03/28/2017)

March 28, 2017 PACER

MINUTE ORDER: The Court is in receipt of Defendants' 5 Consent Motion, which requests an extension of time for Defendants to respond to the Complaint. For good cause shown, the Consent Motion is GRANTED. Defendants shall answer or otherwise respond to the Complaint by MAY 12, 2017. Signed by Judge Colleen Kollar-Kotelly on 3/29/2017. (lcckk1)

March 29, 2017 PACER

Set/Reset Deadlines: Answer due by 5/12/2017. (dot)

March 29, 2017 PACER
6

Consent MOTION for Leave to File First Amended Complaint by JAMES MADISON PROJECT, NOAH SHACHTMAN (Attachments: # 1 Memorandum in Support, # 2 Exhibit A - First Amended Complaint, # 3 Text of Proposed Order)(Moss, Bradley) (Entered: 05/08/2017)

May 8, 2017 PACER

MINUTE ORDER: The Court is in receipt of Plaintiffs' 6 Motion for Leave to File First Amended Complaint, which requests leave to file an amended complaint in this action, and indicates that Defendants do not oppose this relief. This Motion is GRANTED, as the Court finds that "justice so requires." Fed. R. Civ. P. 15(a)(2). Plaintiffs' First Amended Complaint, ECF No. 6-2, is deemed filed as of this date. Signed by Judge Colleen Kollar-Kotelly on 5/10/2017. (lcckk1)

May 10, 2017 PACER
7

FIRST AMENDED COMPLAINT against DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE filed by JAMES MADISON PROJECT, NOAH SHACHTMAN.(znmw) (Entered: 05/11/2017)

May 10, 2017 PACER
8

ANSWER to 7 Amended Complaint by DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE. Related document: 7 Amended Complaint filed by NOAH SHACHTMAN, JAMES MADISON PROJECT. (Attachments: # 1 Exhibit 1 - OLC Request, # 2 Exhibit 2 - DHS Request, # 3 Exhibit 3 - TSA Request, # 4 Exhibit 4 - CBP Request, # 5 Exhibit 5 - ICE Request, # 6 Exhibit 6 - USCIS Request)(Berns, Matthew) (Entered: 05/24/2017)

May 24, 2017 PACER
9

ORDER. The parties shall file a schedule not later than JUNE 7, 2017. Signed by Judge Colleen Kollar-Kotelly on 5/31/2017. (lcckk1) (Entered: 05/31/2017)

May 31, 2017 PACER

Set/Reset Deadlines: Parties shall file a scheduled by 6/7/2017. (dot)

May 31, 2017 PACER
10

Consent MOTION for Extension of Time to File Joint Status Report by DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (Attachments: # 1 Text of Proposed Order)(Berns, Matthew) (Entered: 06/05/2017)

June 5, 2017 PACER

MINUTE ORDER: The Court is in receipt of Defendants' 10 Consent Motion for Extension of Time to File Joint Status Report. For good cause shown, that Motion is GRANTED. The parties shall file the Joint Status Report by JUNE 16, 2017. Signed by Judge Colleen Kollar-Kotelly on 6/6/2017. (lcckk1)

June 6, 2017 PACER

Set/Reset Deadlines: Joint Status Report due by 6/16/2017. (dot)

June 6, 2017 PACER
11

Joint STATUS REPORT by DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE. (Berns, Matthew) (Entered: 06/16/2017)

June 16, 2017 PACER

MINUTE ORDER: The Court is in receipt of the parties' 11 Joint Status Report, which indicates that Defendants have initiated searches for documents, and that some responsive materials have already been produced, and that the parties are conferring regarding the remaining issues in this matter. Accordingly, the parties shall file a further status report by JULY 21, 2017, updating the Court regarding the status of document productions, and proposing a briefing schedule, if necessary. Signed by Judge Colleen Kollar-Kotelly on 6/21/2017. (lcckk1)

June 21, 2017 PACER

Set/Reset Deadlines: Joint Status Report due by 7/21/2017. (dot)

June 21, 2017 PACER
12

Joint STATUS REPORT by JAMES MADISON PROJECT, NOAH SHACHTMAN. (Attachments: # 1 Text of Proposed Order)(Moss, Bradley) (Entered: 07/21/2017)

July 21, 2017 PACER

MINUTE ORDER: The Court is in receipt of the parties' 12 Joint Status Report, which indicates that Defendants have initiated searches for documents, and that some responsive materials have already been produced, and that the parties are conferring regarding the remaining issues in this matter. Accordingly, the parties shall file a further status report by SEPTEMBER 5, 2017, updating the Court regarding the status of document productions, and proposing a briefing schedule, if necessary. Signed by Judge Colleen Kollar-Kotelly on 7/27/2017. (lcckk1)

July 27, 2017 PACER

Set/Reset Deadlines: Joint Status Report due by 9/5/2017. (dot)

July 27, 2017 PACER
13

Joint STATUS REPORT by DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE. (Attachments: # 1 Text of Proposed Order)(Berns, Matthew) (Entered: 09/05/2017)

Sept. 5, 2017 PACER

MINUTE ORDER: The Court is in receipt of the parties' 12 Joint Status Report, which indicates that Defendants have initiated searches for documents, and that some responsive materials have already been produced, and that the parties are conferring regarding the remaining issues in this matter. Accordingly, the parties shall file a further status report by NOVEMBER 6, 2017, updating the Court regarding the status of document productions, and proposing a briefing schedule, if necessary. Signed by Judge Colleen Kollar-Kotelly on 9/20/2017. (lcckk1)

Sept. 20, 2017 PACER

Set/Reset Deadlines: Joint Status Report due by 11/6/2017. (dot)

Sept. 20, 2017 PACER
14

Joint STATUS REPORT by DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE. (Attachments: # 1 Text of Proposed Order)(Berns, Matthew) (Entered: 11/06/2017)

Nov. 6, 2017 PACER

MINUTE ORDER: The Court is in receipt of the parties' 14 Joint Status Report, which indicates that Defendants have initiated searches for documents, and that some responsive materials have already been produced, and that the parties are conferring regarding the remaining issues in this matter. Accordingly, the parties shall file a further status report by JANUARY 19, 2018, updating the Court regarding the status of document productions, and proposing a briefing schedule, if necessary. Signed by Judge Colleen Kollar-Kotelly on November 20, 2017. (lcckk1)

Nov. 20, 2017 PACER

Set/Reset Deadlines: Joint Status Report due by 1/19/2018. (dot)

Nov. 20, 2017 PACER
15

Joint STATUS REPORT by DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE. (Attachments: # 1 Text of Proposed Order)(Berns, Matthew) (Entered: 01/19/2018)

Jan. 19, 2018 PACER
16

NOTICE OF SUBSTITUTION OF COUNSEL by Vinita Balakrishnan Andrapalliyal on behalf of DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Substituting for attorney Matthew J. Berns (Andrapalliyal, Vinita) (Entered: 02/08/2018)

Feb. 8, 2018 PACER

MINUTE ORDER: The Court is in receipt of the parties' 15 Joint Status Report, which indicates that Defendants have been reviewing and producing documents on an ongoing basis. As part of this process, "the parties have conferred about the scope of Plaintiffs' requests, and Plaintiffs have agreed to certain limitations or clarifications of their scope." The Court adopts the parties' proposal that they file a further status report by MARCH 20, 2018, updating the Court regarding the status of document productions, and proposing a briefing schedule, if necessary. Signed by Judge Colleen Kollar-Kotelly on February 28, 2018. (lcckk1)

Feb. 28, 2018 PACER

Set/Reset Deadlines: Joint Status Report due by 3/20/2018. (dot)

Feb. 28, 2018 PACER
17

Joint STATUS REPORT by DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE. (Andrapalliyal, Vinita) (Entered: 03/20/2018)

March 20, 2018 PACER

MINUTE ORDER: The Court is in receipt of the parties' 17 Joint Status Report, which indicates that Defendants have been reviewing and producing documents on an ongoing basis. The Court adopts the parties' proposal that they file a further status report by MAY 21, 2018, updating the Court regarding the status of document productions, and proposing a briefing schedule, if necessary. Signed by Judge Colleen Kollar-Kotelly on April 12, 2018. (lcckk1)

April 12, 2018 PACER

Set/Reset Deadlines: Joint Status Report due by 5/21/2018. (dot)

April 12, 2018 PACER
18

Joint STATUS REPORT by DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE. (Andrapalliyal, Vinita) (Entered: 05/21/2018)

May 21, 2018 PACER

MINUTE ORDER: The Court is in receipt of the parties' 18 Joint Status Report, which indicates that Defendants have been reviewing and producing documents on an ongoing basis. The Court adopts the parties' proposal that they file a further status report by JULY 23, 2018, updating the Court regarding the status of document productions, and proposing a briefing schedule, if necessary. Signed by Judge Colleen Kollar-Kotelly on May 21, 2018. (lcckk1 )

May 21, 2018 PACER

Set/Reset Deadlines: Joint Status Report due by 7/23/2018. (dot)

May 21, 2018 PACER
19

Joint STATUS REPORT by DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE. (Andrapalliyal, Vinita) (Entered: 07/23/2018)

July 23, 2018 PACER

MINUTE ORDER: The Court is in receipt of the parties' 19 Joint Status Report, which indicates that Defendants have been reviewing and producing documents on an ongoing basis. The Court adopts the parties' proposal that they file a further status report by SEPTEMBER 24, 2018, updating the Court regarding the status of document productions, and proposing a briefing schedule, if necessary. Signed by Judge Colleen Kollar-Kotelly on August 2, 2018. (lcckk1)

Aug. 2, 2018 PACER

Set/Reset Deadlines: Joint Status Report due by 9/24/2018, updating the Court regarding the status of document productions, and proposing a briefing schedule, if necessary. (dot)

Aug. 2, 2018 PACER
20

Joint STATUS REPORT by DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE. (Andrapalliyal, Vinita) (Entered: 09/24/2018)

Sept. 24, 2018 RECAP

MINUTE ORDER: The Court is in receipt of the parties' 20 Joint Status Report, which indicates that Defendants have been reviewing and producing documents on an ongoing basis. The Court adopts the parties' proposal that they file a further Joint Status Report by NOVEMBER 27, 2018, updating the Court regarding the status of document productions, and proposing a briefing schedule, if necessary. The parties shall continue to submit further Joint Status Reports every sixty days thereafter, unless and until the Court orders otherwise. Signed by Judge Colleen Kollar-Kotelly on October 9, 2018. (lcckk1)

Oct. 9, 2018 PACER

Set/Reset Deadlines: Joint Status Report due by 11/27/2018, updating the Court regarding the status of document productions, and proposing a briefing schedule, if necessary. (dot)

Oct. 9, 2018 PACER
21

Joint STATUS REPORT by DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE. (Andrapalliyal, Vinita) (Entered: 11/27/2018)

Nov. 27, 2018 RECAP
22

Joint STATUS REPORT by DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE. (Andrapalliyal, Vinita) (Entered: 01/29/2019)

Jan. 29, 2019 PACER
23

Joint STATUS REPORT by DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE. (Andrapalliyal, Vinita) (Entered: 03/28/2019)

March 28, 2019 PACER
24

Joint STATUS REPORT by DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE. (Andrapalliyal, Vinita) (Entered: 05/28/2019)

May 28, 2019 PACER
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Status Report

July 30, 2019 PACER

.Order

July 31, 2019 PACER

Set/Reset Deadlines

Aug. 2, 2019 PACER
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Status Report

Oct. 1, 2019 PACER
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Status Report

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Status Report

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Status Report

April 7, 2020 PACER
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Status Report

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Status Report

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Set/Reset Deadlines

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Status Report

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Status Report

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Status Report

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Status Report

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Status Report

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Extension of Time to File Document

Jan. 13, 2022 PACER

.Order

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Set/Reset Deadlines

Jan. 14, 2022 PACER
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Amend/Correct

1 Text of Proposed Order

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Jan. 14, 2022 PACER

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Status Report

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State / Territory: District of Columbia

Case Type(s):

National Security

Special Collection(s):

Trump Administration FOIA cases

Key Dates

Filing Date: March 3, 2017

Case Ongoing: Yes

Plaintiffs

Plaintiff Description:

The James Madison Project ("JMP") is an organization established in 1998 "to promote government accountability and the reduction of secrecy, as well as [to educate] the public on issues relating to intelligence and national security." Noah Shachtman is the current Executive Editor of The Daily Beast.

Plaintiff Type(s):

Private Plaintiff

Non-profit NON-religious organization

Public Interest Lawyer: No

Filed Pro Se: No

Class Action Sought: No

Class Action Outcome: Not sought

Defendants

U.S. Department of Justice, Federal

U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Federal

U.S. Transportation Security Administration, Federal

U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Federal

U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement, Federal

U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services, Federal

Defendant Type(s):

Law-enforcement

Case Details

Causes of Action:

Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), 5 U.S.C. § 552

Availably Documents:

Trial Court Docket

Complaint (any)

Outcome

Prevailing Party: None Yet / None

Nature of Relief:

None yet

Source of Relief:

None yet

Issues

General:

Confidentiality

Record-keeping

Records Disclosure

Terrorism/Post 9-11 issues

Discrimination-basis:

National origin discrimination

Religion discrimination

Type of Facility:

Government-run

Immigration/Border:

Admission - criteria

Admission - procedure

Asylum - criteria

Asylum - procedure

Status/Classification

Visas - criteria

Visas - procedures

National Origin/Ethnicity:

Arab/Afgani/Middle Eastern