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Case Name State of New York v. U.S. Department of Commerce PB-NY-0032
Docket / Court 1:18-cv-02921-JMF ( S.D.N.Y. )
State/Territory New York
Case Type(s) Immigration and/or the Border
Public Benefits / Government Services
Special Collection Take Care
Attorney Organization Brennan Center for Justice
Case Summary
This was a legal challenge brought by an alliance of states, counties, and municipalities to the Trump Administration’s proposed addition of a question about citizenship status to the 2020 U.S. Census. The plaintiffs filed this lawsuit on April 3, 2018 in the U.S. District Court for the Southern ... read more >
This was a legal challenge brought by an alliance of states, counties, and municipalities to the Trump Administration’s proposed addition of a question about citizenship status to the 2020 U.S. Census. The plaintiffs filed this lawsuit on April 3, 2018 in the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York and sought declaratory and injunctive relief. The plaintiffs alleged that the federal government, by asking census participants about their citizenship status, would deter undocumented immigrants from participating in the census out of a fear of possible government reprisal, thus hurting the accuracy of census counts. According to the plaintiffs, this meant that the federal government was both shirking its duty under the Enumeration Clause of the U.S. Constitution (Article I, Sec. 2, Cl. 3) to conduct an “actual enumeration” of the “whole number of persons” and violating the Administrative Procedure Act (APA). The plaintiffs further alleged that were census numbers to be kept artificially low, a number of public benefits would be jeopardized including federal funding for social services and infrastructure, numerically adequate representation in the House of Representatives, and public and private resources for immigrant communities.

The Department of Commerce (DOC) moved to dismiss the complaint on May 25, 2018. It primarily argued that: 1) the plaintiffs lacked standing to bring a lawsuit because their alleged injuries were too speculative and failed to allege that they were caused by the proposed citizenship question; 2) the decision over what questions to include in the census questionnaire was solely within the agency’s discretion; 3) the Enumeration Clause does not contain any restrictions on the form of the census questionnaire; and 4) even conceding the previous three arguments, the agency’s decision to include a citizenship question would not violate the APA, the Enumeration Clause, or any other law.

On June 6, 2018, an alliance of immigration advocacy non-profits filed a separate lawsuit, stylized New York Immigration Coalition v. U.S. Department of Commerce and referred to below as NYIC, (also in the Clearinghouse) in the same court (District Judge Jesse M. Furman), making the same legal claims as the plaintiffs in this case, as well as an additional Fifth Amendment equal protection claim. On June 13, 2018, after the parties conferred on a possible consolidation of the two cases, District Judge Furman ordered them coordinated and consolidated for the purposes of case management and discovery, while while announcing that the question of whether the cases would be formally consolidated would be addressed in the future as the cases progressed.

On June 26, 2018, pursuant to an order from District Judge Furman, the parties filed an opposing letter brief on whether and to what extent discovery outside of the administrative record would be permitted. The plaintiffs argued that their allegations of bad-faith decision-making and the need to explain the complex subject-matter of the case made extra-record discovery appropriate. The Department of Commerce, for its part, rebutted by asserting that discovery would be inappropriate in an action challenging an agency decision. After hearing oral arguments on this issue on July 3, Judge Furman sided with the plaintiffs.

In an opinion issued on July 26, 2018, Judge Furman allowed the plaintiffs’ APA claim to proceed while dismissing the Enumeration Clause claim. He rejected in full the government’s arguments that the court lacked jurisdiction; Judge Furman explained that although the DOC was entitled to deference as to which questions to include on the census, that did not mean that the DOC’s decisions were totally insulated from judicial review. At the same time, he rejected the plaintiffs' Enumeration Clause claim, concluding that the citizenship question was a permissible (although not mandated) exercise of Congress’s—and, by extension, the DOC’s—broad power under the Clause.

On September 14, 2018, the court ordered formal consolidation of this case with NYIC, the case noted above . The litigants moved forward with their existing claims after consolidation. A week later, on September 21, 2018, the court granted the plaintiffs’ request to depose Secretary of Commerce Wilbur Ross. The court reasoned that because the Secretary’s intent and credibility were directly at issue, the public interest weighed heavily in favor of deposition of a high-ranking government official. 333 F. Supp. 3d 282.

From the rest of September, 2018, to November, 2018, there were a series of protracted disputes over discovery; repeated requests by the government for a stay of the proceedings, discovery, and depositions; and multiple filings in the Second Circuit and the Supreme Court for a writ of mandamus. All of these requests were denied. However, the Supreme Court stayed the testimony of Secretary Ross until it could decide on the government’s petition for a writ of mandamus. 202 L.Ed.2d 306 . The effect of this was that Secretary Ross was not deposed before the district court held a bench trial.

The district court held a bench trial from November 5 through November 9, 2018, and then held oral arguments on November 26. Judge Furman issued a statement of findings of fact and law, and an order dated January 15, 2019. . The court found for the defendants on the constitutional claims and for the plaintiffs on their APA claim. Judge Furman found no constitutional violation because the plaintiffs did not sufficiently show that Secretary Ross's actions were motivated by a discriminatory purpose. However, the court held that the Secretary Ross had violated the APA by ignoring the procedures set forth for adding questions to the Census (notifying Congress), acting irrationally in light of the evidence before him indicating problems with his proposed question, and providing a bad-faith or pretextual rationale for the proposed question. The judge held that the stated rationale for adding a citizenship question to the Census—enforcing the Voting Rights Act—was designed to conceal his true purpose. The court therefore issued an injunction prohibiting the Department from adding a question concerning citizenship status to the 2020 decennial census questionnaire. The Secretary of Commerce and the Director of the Census were enjoined from adding a citizenship question to the 2020 decennial census questionnaire unless: 1) the Secretary of Commerce had exhausted other options for gathering citizenship data; and 2) the Secretary of Commerce had first adequately explained his reasoning to Congress. 351 F. Supp. 3d 502

On January 27, 2019, the defendants appealed to the Second Circuit Court of Appeals as well as the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court granted review of the case on February 15, 2019—before judgment by the Second Circuit—and set arguments for April 2019. The expedited review was justified under the pretense that details concerning the census needed to be resolved prior to July 2019 in order to send the survey out on time. 2019 WL 331100.

The Supreme Court issued their ruling on June 27, 2019. The court held that: 1) the citizenship question was allowed under the Enumeration Clause; 2) the Commerce Secretary's broad authority under the Census Act did not preclude judicial review but that the Act had not been violated; 3) the district court order for extra-record discovery was premature, but ultimately justified; but 4) the Secretary's explanation for including the citizenship question was ultimately, as the district court had decided, pretextual. The High Court remanded the case back to the district court for further proceedings but did not undo the injunction preventing the citizenship question from being placed on the census. 139 S.Ct. 2551.

Upon remand, on July 7, the Department of Justice announced that it was replacing its entire legal team dealing with the citizenship question, but on July 9, Judge Furman rejected the action, stated that reasons had to be given for the withdrawal of each attorney, and noted that the administration had been insisting for months that the question needed to be settled by July 1. Judge Furman issued his order on July 16, 2019, that permanently barred the government from including the citizenship question on the 2020 Census or to further delay preparations for the Census. 2019 WL 3213840.

The court retained jurisdiction to enforce the terms of this injunction until December 31, 2020, when the census results were due to be processed and sent to the President. Meanwhile, the plaintiffs moved for sanctions against the government. This was denied in-part and affirmed in-part on May 21, 2020. The government was ordered to pay the attorney fees and costs associated with addressing the government's incomplete discovery productions. 2019 WL 3213840. A notice of settlement for fees, expenses, and costs was filed by the non-profit plaintiffs on June 25, 2020.

As the census terminated at the end of the year 2020, the case is now closed.

Alexander Walling - 08/03/2018
Elizabeth Johnson - 03/12/2019
John Duffield - 08/02/2021


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Issues and Causes of Action
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Issues
Constitutional Clause
Due Process
Due Process: Substantive Due Process
Enumerations Clause
Equal Protection
Content of Injunction
Discrimination Prohibition
Defendant-type
Jurisdiction-wide
Discrimination-basis
Immigration status
National origin discrimination
Race discrimination
General
Public benefits (includes, e.g., in-state tuition, govt. jobs)
Immigration/Border
Status/Classification
Undocumented immigrants - rights and duties
National Origin/Ethnicity
Hispanic
Plaintiff Type
City/County Plaintiff
Non-profit NON-religious organization
State Plaintiff
Causes of Action Administrative Procedure Act, 5 U.S.C. §§ 551 et seq.
Declaratory Judgment Act, 28 U.S.C. § 2201
Ex parte Young (federal or state officials)
Defendant(s) Department of Commerce
Plaintiff Description An alliance of U.S. states, counties, municipalities, and NGOs
Indexed Lawyer Organizations Brennan Center for Justice
Class action status sought No
Class action status outcome Not sought
Filed Pro Se No
Prevailing Party Plaintiff
Public Int. Lawyer Yes
Nature of Relief Attorneys fees
Injunction / Injunctive-like Settlement
Source of Relief Litigation
Order Duration 2019 - n/a
Filed 04/03/2018
Case Closing Year 2020
Case Ongoing No
Case Listing PB-NY-0033 : New York Immigration Coalition v. U.S. Department of Commerce (S.D.N.Y.)
PB-CA-0049 : California v. Ross (N.D. Cal.)
PB-CA-0051 : San Jose v. Ross (N.D. Cal.)
Additional Resources
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  See this case at CourtListener.com (May provide additional documents and, for active cases, real-time alerts)
  New York v. United States Department of Commerce
Brennan Center for Justice
Date: Aug. 10, 2020
By: Brennan Center for Justice
[ Detail ] [ External Link ]

  Department of Commerce v. New York
Oyez
Date: Jun. 27, 2019
By: Oyez
[ Detail ] [ External Link ]

  Calendar of Upcoming Deadlines and Hearings for Census 2020 Cases
Date: Mar. 29, 2019
(Brennan Center for Justice)
[ Detail ] [ External Link ]

  2020 Census Litigation
(The Brennan Center)
[ Detail ] [ External Link ]

Court Docket(s)
S.D.N.Y.
08/02/2021
1:18-cv-02921
PB-NY-0032-9000.pdf | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
General Documents
S.D.N.Y.
04/04/2018
Complaint [ECF# 10]
PB-NY-0032-0002.pdf | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
S.D.N.Y.
06/06/2018
Complaint [ECF# 1]
PB-NY-0032-0001.pdf | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
S.D.N.Y.
07/25/2018
Second Amended Complaint [ECF# 214]
PB-NY-0032-0003.pdf | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
S.D.N.Y.
07/26/2018
Opinion and Order [ECF# 215] (315 F.Supp.3d 766)
PB-NY-0032-0004.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
U.S. Court of Appeals
09/10/2018
Order [Ct. of App. ECF# 312]
PB-NY-0032-0005.pdf | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
S.D.N.Y.
09/21/2018
Opinion and Order [ECF# 344] (333 F.Supp.3d 282)
PB-NY-0032-0012.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
U.S. Court of Appeals
09/25/2018
Order [Ct. of App. ECF# 351]
PB-NY-0032-0006.pdf | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
S.D.N.Y.
09/30/2018
Memorandum Order and Opinion [ECF# 362]
PB-NY-0032-0007.pdf | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
U.S. Court of Appeals
10/09/2018
Order [Ct. of App. ECF# 373]
PB-NY-0032-0008.pdf | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
U.S. Supreme Court
10/22/2018
US Supreme Court Opinion (139 S.Ct. 16)
PB-NY-0032-0009.pdf | WESTLAW | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
S.D.N.Y.
11/20/2018
Memorandum Opinion and Order [ECF# 544] (2018 WL 6060304)
PB-NY-0032-0013.pdf | WESTLAW | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
S.D.N.Y.
01/15/2019
Findings of Fact and Conclusions of Law Regarding Census Questionaire [ECF# 574] (351 F.Supp.3d 502)
PB-NY-0032-0010.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
S.D.N.Y.
01/15/2019
Final Judgment, Order of Vacatur, And Permanent Injunction [ECF# 575]
PB-NY-0032-0011.pdf | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
U.S. Supreme Court
01/25/2019
Petition for a Writ of Certiorari before Judgment
PB-NY-0032-0014.pdf | External Link | Detail
Source: Supreme Court website
U.S. Supreme Court
01/25/2019
Motion for Expedited Consideration of the Petition for a Writ of Certiorari before Judgment and for Expedited Merits Briefing and Oral Argument in the Event that the Court Grants the Petition
PB-NY-0032-0015.pdf | External Link | Detail
Source: Supreme Court website
U.S. Supreme Court
06/27/2019
[Opinion of the Court] (139 S.Ct. 2551)
PB-NY-0032-0016.pdf | WESTLAW | External Link | Detail
Source: Supreme Court website
S.D.N.Y.
07/03/2019
[Letter Response to Motion addressed to Judge Jesse M. Furman from Joshua E. Gardner] [ECF# 613]
PB-NY-0032-0017.pdf | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
S.D.N.Y.
05/21/2020
Opinion and Order [ECF# 694] (461 F.Supp.3d 80)
PB-NY-0032-0018.pdf | WESTLAW| LEXIS | Detail
Source: PACER [Public Access to Court Electronic Records]
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Judges Alito, Samuel A. Jr. (Third Circuit, SCOTUS) show/hide docs
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de Haan, Brian Alexander (New York) show/hide docs
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Denn, Matthew P. (Delaware) show/hide docs
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Donovan, Thomas J. Jr. (Vermont) show/hide docs
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Ferguson, Robert W. (Washington) show/hide docs
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Field, Benjamin H. (Pennsylvania) show/hide docs
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Finkelstein, Alex (New York) show/hide docs
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Fischer, Michael J. (Pennsylvania) show/hide docs
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Flynn, Ronald P. (California) show/hide docs
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Frosh, Brian E. (Maryland) show/hide docs
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Goldman, Jonathan Scott (Pennsylvania) show/hide docs
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Goldstein, Elena Stacy (New York) show/hide docs
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Gupta, Neha (California) show/hide docs
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Healey, Maura T. (Massachusetts) show/hide docs
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Hendricks, John (Illinois) show/hide docs
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Herrera, Dennis J. (California) show/hide docs
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Herring, Mark R. (Virginia) show/hide docs
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Hilton, Yvonne (Pennsylvania) show/hide docs
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Stein, Joshua H (North Carolina) show/hide docs
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Swanson, Lori (Minnesota) show/hide docs
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Theodore, Elisabeth S. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
PB-NY-0032-0001
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PB-NY-0032-9000
VanDam, Jeff (Illinois) show/hide docs
PB-NY-0032-0002 | PB-NY-0032-0003
Weiner, David J. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
PB-NY-0032-0001
Wood, Laura Jane (New York) show/hide docs
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Wootton, Barbara H. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
PB-NY-0032-0001
Worseck, Andrew W (Illinois) show/hide docs
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PB-NY-0032-9000
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PB-NY-0032-0001
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Boland, Patricia Jean (Arizona) show/hide docs
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Burnham, James M (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
PB-NY-0032-0017
Coyle, Garrett Joseph (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
PB-NY-0032-9000
Davidson, Peter B (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
PB-NY-0032-0014
Dewhirst, David (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
PB-NY-0032-0014
Ehrlich, Stephen (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
PB-NY-0032-9000
Federighi, Carol (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
PB-NY-0032-9000
Francisco, Noel (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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Gans, David H. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
PB-NY-0032-9000
Gardner, Joshua Edward (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
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PB-NY-0032-0017
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Joshi, Sopan (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
PB-NY-0032-0014
LaCour, Alice Shih (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
PB-NY-0032-9000
Mooppan, Hashim M. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
PB-NY-0032-0014
Park, Michael Hun (New York) show/hide docs
PB-NY-0032-9000
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PB-NY-0032-9000
Sinzdak, Gerard (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
PB-NY-0032-0014
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PB-NY-0032-0014
Tarczynska, Dominika Natalia (New York) show/hide docs
PB-NY-0032-9000
Tomlinson, Martin (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
PB-NY-0032-9000
Wall, Jeffrey B. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
PB-NY-0032-0014
Wells, Carlotta (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
PB-NY-0032-9000
Other Lawyers Adams, Rory Edward (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
PB-NY-0032-9000
Boutin, Gabrielle Downey (California) show/hide docs
PB-NY-0032-9000
Butler, Alan (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
PB-NY-0032-9000
Cahn, Albert Fox (New York) show/hide docs
PB-NY-0032-9000
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PB-NY-0032-9000
Case, Andrew (New York) show/hide docs
PB-NY-0032-9000
Cho, Dustin (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
PB-NY-0032-9000
Crain, Lee Ross (New York) show/hide docs
PB-NY-0032-9000
Delery, Stuart F. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
PB-NY-0032-9000
Derrick, Geoffrey James (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
PB-NY-0032-9000
Diskant, Gregory L. (New York) show/hide docs
PB-NY-0032-9000
Duke, Peter Benjamin DeWitt (New York) show/hide docs
PB-NY-0032-9000
Duraiswamy, Shankar (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
PB-NY-0032-9000
Favors, Lurie Daniel (New York) show/hide docs
PB-NY-0032-9000
Feinberg, Ira M. (New York) show/hide docs
PB-NY-0032-9000
Ferrara, Christopher A. (New Jersey) show/hide docs
PB-NY-0032-9000
Grant, Daniel (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
PB-NY-0032-9000
Guehenno, Claire M. (New York) show/hide docs
PB-NY-0032-9000
Hajec, Christopher J. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
PB-NY-0032-0002 | PB-NY-0032-9000
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PB-NY-0032-9000
Hobel, Lawrence (California) show/hide docs
PB-NY-0032-9000
Hsu, Alice (New York) show/hide docs
PB-NY-0032-9000
Ingber, Matthew D (New York) show/hide docs
PB-NY-0032-9000
Kimberly, Michael B. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
PB-NY-0032-9000
Libby, John F. (California) show/hide docs
PB-NY-0032-9000
Mansingham, Mithun (Oklahoma) show/hide docs
PB-NY-0032-9000
Nunes, Bianca (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
PB-NY-0032-9000
Paltzik, Edward Andrew (New York) show/hide docs
PB-NY-0032-9000
Pees, Robert Hardy (New York) show/hide docs
PB-NY-0032-9000
Petrossian, Emil (California) show/hide docs
PB-NY-0032-9000
Pincus, Andrew J. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
PB-NY-0032-9000
Schoenfeld, Alan E. (New York) show/hide docs
PB-NY-0032-9000
Senteno, Andrea E. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
PB-NY-0032-9000
Shah, Niyati (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
PB-NY-0032-9000
Southwell, Alexander H. (New York) show/hide docs
PB-NY-0032-9000
Thomas, Tina (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
PB-NY-0032-9000
Tilak, Karun A. (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
PB-NY-0032-9000
Wesneski, Joshua Morgan (District of Columbia) show/hide docs
PB-NY-0032-9000
Wise, Gabrielle D (California) show/hide docs
PB-NY-0032-9000

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